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Flashcards in Exam 8 L. 1 Deck (11):

Feline nasal tumor therapy

1) lymphoma >carcinoma
2) radiation therapy 1st choice for cats
3) lymphoma treated radiation therapy +/- with CHOP
-MST 2-3 years
4) adenocarcinomas treated with radiation therapy


Chemotherapy dosage

**Most drugs are dosed on the basis of body surface area**
1) body surface area correlates with basal metabolic activity, blood volume, cardiac output, and pharmacokinetics
2) body surface area in meters squared = (K * ((body wt gm)^2/3))/(10^4)
-constant K: 10.1 for dogs
-constant K: 10.0 for cats


Differential diagnoses for perianal masses

1) perianal sebaceous gland adenoma
2) perianal sebaceous gland adenocarcinoma
3) Anal sac apocrine gland adenocarcinoma
4) skin tumors-mast cell
5) infection


Perianal adenoma-benign

1) intact males*-due to testosterone
(ovariectomized females)
2) hyperadrenocortiscism
3) most frequent tumor in this area!
4) slow-growing, can be secondarily infected, ulcerate
5) may also be found over the back, tail, legs (it may be far from the anal area, but it still perianal adenoma


Perianal adenoma

Cytology: look like liver cells (hepatoid)
treatment-can be cured with conservative excision and neuter!
**Castration cures 90%-androgen dependent!


Perianal sebaceous gland adenocarcinoma

1) rare, single, invasive, often ulcerated
2) metastasis to regional lymph nodes in 50%
3)*NOT androgen dependent
4) SIZE MATTERS! -- <5 cm associated with longer survival


Anal sac adenocarcinoma

1) 2% of all skin tumors (uncommon in cats)
2) disease of 10-year-old dogs usually, as early as 5
3) early detection is CRITICAL!
-Do a rectal exam at the yearly physical exam!
4) 50% metastasis at the time of detection


Anal sac adenocarcinoma: presentation

1) perianal swelling or discomfort
2) scooting or excessive licking of perianal area
3) constipation, tenesmus, hematochezia (fresh blood in stools)
4) perianal mass or lymphadenopathy noted on rectal exam
5) secondary to hypercalcemia ==> caused by tumor secretion of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP)
6) local spread especially to lymph nodes is most common (iliac)*


Anal sac adenocarcinoma: treatment

1) multimodal-surgical excision is most important
2) recurrences common, reported in about 50% of dogs
3) hypercalcemia will resolve within 24 hours (**if hypercalcemia doesn't resolve, this may indicate that there is metastatic disease somewhere else! ie. LN!!)
4) prognosis: best survival times with the combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery-2.6 years


Summary: anal sac adenocarcinoma

1) locally invasive tumor with a high rate of metastasis
2) hypercalcemia is present in up to half of cases (resolves with surgical excision)
3)*due to nature of tumor MULTIMODAL treatment is necessary for best control
4)**do ROUTINE RECTAL EXAM-early detection is best!



1)**most common bone tumor in the dog**
-85% are osteosarcoma
2) likes to go to bone, lungs, and lymph nodes
**it usually does NOT cross the joint**
-(synovial cell sarcoma and histiocytic cell sarcoma both WILL crossed the joint)
3)******** metastasis?**********
-- Macroscopic==> Palladia
-- Microscopic ==> Carboplatin

(we don't think Palladia is very good for microscopic disease)

4) balance narcotics with the amount of constipation, appetite, sedation