Exam 9: Psychomotor Stimulants Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology > Exam 9: Psychomotor Stimulants > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 9: Psychomotor Stimulants Deck (32):
1

Methamphetamine

Amphetamine with an added methyl group that helps resist metabolism by MAO and makes it more lipid soluble (better at entering the CNS)

2

Methylphenidate

Ritalin
Used to treat ADD
Acts on the Locus Ceruleus (area with the most NE producing neurons)
Can also affect dopamine areas (abuse potential)

3

Cathinone

Amphetamine-like molecule found in leaves of a plant in Africa and the Middle East
Analogs are found in "Bath Salts" which are snorted to produce amphetamine-like high

4

Ephedrine

Natural product found in herbal preps
Sympathomimetic agent
Can be used to cook meth

5

Modafanil and Armodafanil

Non-amphetamine stimulants
Used to treat narcolepsy and shift work disorder
Abused by students for their amphetamine-like effects

6

CNS effects of stimulants

1. Arousal, make fullness (reticular activating system)
2. Euphoria (WOO!!!) (some people get dysphoria)
3. Delay fatigue-induced decline in performance (intellectual and motor)

7

Adverse effects of stimulants

1. crashing
2. tolerance, dependence (psychological and physical)
3. Tactile Hallucinations (formication).
4. Symptoms that mimimc paranoid schizophrenia (usually reversible)
5. Appetite suppression

8

Peripheral effects of stimulants

Hypertension, tachycardia, arrhythmias, mydriasis
Decreased food intake, wasting
Dental/skin problems

9

Potential toxic neurological effect of stimulants

1. Degeneration of the dopaminergic and serotonergic pathways in the brain
2. Decreased levels of stored levels of DA in the reward centers (dependence)

10

Amphetamine mechanism

Enhance release of NE and DA

11

Cocaine mechanism

Inhibition of the uptake of NE and DA

12

General mechanisms of stimulants

1. Enhance release or decrease uptake of NE and DA
2. Direct stimulation of alpha receptors in reward centers of the brain

13

How can you increase excretion of amphetamines?

Acidify the urine

14

Medical uses of amphetamines

Narcolepsy
ADD
Weight loss

15

What is different about crack compared to powdered cocaine?

It is fat soluble and taken by smoking

16

Positive effects of cocaine

Euphoria
Reinforcing effects on reward centers (causes seeking behavior)
Suppresses appetite

17

Negative Effects of Cocaine in the CNS

Paranoia, hallucinations, psychosis
Craving
Lethargy, fatigue
Depression, anhedonia
Irritability, hostility, anxiety

18

Peripheral effects of cocaine

Increased HR and BP
Arrhythmias
Stroke
Sudden death
Birth defects

19

Mechanisms of cocaine

CNS- Inhibition of reuptake of NE and DA resulting in stimulant and reinforcing effects respectively
Periphery- Inhibits NE reuptake resulting in sympathomimetic effects

20

What are drugs that could antagonize the effects of cocaine?

Antipsychotics tha tblock dopamine receptors

21

Effect of chronic cocaine use?

Inhibition of DA reuptake eventually results in depletion of DA in the presynaptic neuron

22

What are some treatments for cocaine dependence?

1. Nutritional supplements that help rejuvenate DA stores
2. L-DOPA
3. Bromocryptine (DA agonist)
4. Antidepressants (Bupropion) are less powerful DA reuptake inhibitors
5. Certain opioids

23

Name 3 Methylxanthines

1. Caffeine
2. Theophylline
3. Aminophylline

24

What are Theophylline and aminophylline used for?

Asthma (they relax the bronchioles)

25

What could you use to stimulate respiration in preterm infants?

Caffeine or theophylline

26

What are peripheral effects of methylxanthines?

Relax bronchioles
Stimulate gastric secretion (careful in patients with peptic ulcer disease)
Carcinogenic/teratogenic???-Controversial

27

3 mechanisms of methylxanthines?

1. Phosphodiesterase inhibition
2. Adenosine receptor blockage
3. Calcium release

28

Uses of methylxanthines?

Asthma
Headache
Diuretics
Respiratory stimulation in preterm infants

29

Methyxanthine OD

Can lead to life threatening seizures or cardiovascular collapse

30

Name 2 spinal cord stimulants

Strychnine and Tetanus toxin

31

Strychnine

Glycine antagonist in the spinal cord and other CNS areas
Removes post synaptic inhibition and can cause severe seizures
Treat with diazepam

32

Tetanus toxin

Inhibits glycine release from Renshaw cells
Causes convulsions, tetany