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Flashcards in Exam I Deck (76):
1

2-

partial ROM in gravity eliminated position

2

functional muscle testing

groups muscles together based on common osteokinematic motion - used for assessing which transfer to use

3

Purpose of ROM measurement (6)

(1) determine impairments, (2) diagnosis, (3) develop prognosis, treatment goals & POC, (4) modify treatment, (5) determine progress, (6) determine effectiveness of treatment

4

Osteokinematics

gross joint motion

5

muscle length can affect what 3 aspects?

alignment, ROM, strength

6

optimal test position for MMT of 2-joint muscle

midrange

7

how do you move joint in a gravity eliminated position?

perpendicular to pull of gravity

8

normal ROM for shoulder extension

60 degrees

9

normal ROM for cervical side flexion

22 degrees

10

3-

full ROM against gravity, but can't hold

11

4

moderate pressure

12

what is abnormal muscle length

reduced or
excessive flexibility and
extensibility

13

define muscle length

the maximal distance between distal and
proximal attachments of a muscle

14

1

no visible movement but can palpate/observe contraction

15

body of goniometer

part that has numbers for measurement

16

factors affecting AROM (4)

(1) willingness to move, (2) coordination, (3) strength, (4) amount of motion

17

purpose of muscle length testing

to determine if muscle length is normal, limited or excessive

18

connective tissue adhesions including peri-articular

these tissue overlap and adhere to each other

19

characteristics of normal ROM

smooth, full range, pain free, normal strength, & relaxation of antagonists

20

what is the difference between range of joint motion & range of muscle length?

range of joint motion is mobility (e.g. hypermobility/hypomobility) and range of muscle length is the length of a muscle at a joint/joints

21

5

can hold test against strong pressure; unable to break patient's position

22

what are two reasons validity would be poor for goinometric measurements?

poor stabilization & movements of joint axis during measurement

23

firm end feel

capsular stretch, ligament, muscle

24

normal ROM for cervical extension

50 degrees

25

which type of muscle can shorten through a full ROM?

a 1-joint muscle; 2-joint muscles can't contract through full ROM

26

normal ROM for ER

90 degrees

27

4+

mod-strong pressure

28

factors affecting muscle flexibility & extensibility (5)

(1) prolonged immobilization, (2) restricted joint mobility, (3) neuromuscular diseases, (4) traumatic tissue pathology, (5) connective tissue diseases

29

normal ROM for shoulder flexion

180 degrees

30

2

full ROM in gravity eliminated position

31

normal ROM for cervical flexion

40 degrees

32

0

no movement or contraction

33

clinically, which side do you test first?

uninvolved side

34

what is normal muscle length

has the flexibility
and extensibility required
to allow normal joint
motion

35

3

against gravity (Full ROM); no pressure applied

36

when measuring ROM, what is done to the distal segment of joint?

taken through full range of motion

37

normal ROM for shoulder abduction

180 degrees

38

MLT involves elongating the muscle in what direction?

direction opposite of its action

39

normal ROM for cervical rotation

50 degrees

40

hard end feel

bone/cartilage

41

pennate muscles

fibers run obliquely (ex. rectus femoris)

42

what are the terms associated with muscle strength grading?

5 - normal
4 - good
3 - fair
2 - poor
1 - trace
0 - none

43

what concept is important to consider to 2-joint muscle when measuring muscle length?

passive insufficency; 2-joint muscles do not have sufficient extensibility
to lengthen through full ROM for both joints
simultaneously

44

3+

minimal pressure

45

Arthrokinematic

occurs at joint surface, can't be seen

46

passive insufficiency

full range of motion of a joint is limited due to the length of the muscle (as opposed to ligaments or structural inhibition)

47

4-

min-moderate pressure

48

Inclinometer

similar to a level, uses air or liquid

49

pseudomyostatic contracture

muscle maintained in a central nervous system pathology that is maintaining the muscle in a constant state of contracture (causes increased tone)

50

break test

when examiner applies external pressure to force patient to
give in during muscle testing

51

2+

full ROM gravity eliminated with minimal resistance OR partial ROM against gravity

52

what are 4 ways to maximize reliability?

always use the same instrument, position, procedure & examiner

53

purpose of MMT (3)

(1) detect weakness, (2) detect imbalances, (3) determine ability of muscles to function in movement and provide stability and support

54

myostatic contracture

The adaptive shortening of the muscle, leading to tightness (no pathology, could be as a result of poor posture)

55

fan-shaped muscles

fibers arranged side by side (ex. pec major)

56

what can cause weakness? (5)

nerve involvement, disuse atrophy, stretch weakness, pain, fatigue

57

fusiform muscles

parallel fibers with flat tendons (ex. biceps)

58

active insufficiency

when a two joint muscle is no longer able
to generate an effective force due to being placed in a fully shortened
position

59

how do you isolate the 1 joint muscle in MMT?

put the two joint muscle on slack

60

stationary arm

parallel to stationary segment

61

scar tissue adhesions

connective tissue bound down to each other

62

when measuring ROM, what is done to the proximal segment of joint?

stabalize

63

normal ROM for IR

70 degrees

64

axis/fulcrum

in line with axis of motion

65

factors affecting PROM (2)

integrity of joint surfaces and extensibility of soft tissue

66

which motion should be more, passive or active

passive

67

how is strength affected by muscle length?

length tension relationship

68

moving arm

parallel to moving segment

69

optimal test position for MMT of 1-joint muscle

end range

70

Factors Affecting ROM (5)

(1) gender, (2) age, (3) muscle bulk, (4) joint capsule laxity, (5) skin extensibility

71

soft end feel

occurs when soft tissue come in contact (muscle on muscle)

72

characteristics of dysfunctional ROM

pain, limited ROM, compensation, unwillingness to move

73

what are the curvatures of the spine?

cervical lordosis
thoracic kyphosis
lumbar lordosis
sacral kyphosis

74

what is the purpose of the spinal curvatures?

help the spine absorb load

75

what are the main functions of the superficial (global) and deep (local) muscles of the spine?

superficial: move joints
deep: stabilize the spine

76

the GH joint and scapulo-thoracic joint are responsible for how much motion at the shoulder joint?

GH joint: 2/3
ST joint: 1/3