Flashcards in Exam I Deck (76):
partial ROM in gravity eliminated position
functional muscle testing
groups muscles together based on common osteokinematic motion - used for assessing which transfer to use
Purpose of ROM measurement (6)
(1) determine impairments, (2) diagnosis, (3) develop prognosis, treatment goals & POC, (4) modify treatment, (5) determine progress, (6) determine effectiveness of treatment
gross joint motion
muscle length can affect what 3 aspects?
alignment, ROM, strength
optimal test position for MMT of 2-joint muscle
how do you move joint in a gravity eliminated position?
perpendicular to pull of gravity
normal ROM for shoulder extension
normal ROM for cervical side flexion
full ROM against gravity, but can't hold
what is abnormal muscle length
excessive flexibility and
define muscle length
the maximal distance between distal and
proximal attachments of a muscle
no visible movement but can palpate/observe contraction
body of goniometer
part that has numbers for measurement
factors affecting AROM (4)
(1) willingness to move, (2) coordination, (3) strength, (4) amount of motion
purpose of muscle length testing
to determine if muscle length is normal, limited or excessive
connective tissue adhesions including peri-articular
these tissue overlap and adhere to each other
characteristics of normal ROM
smooth, full range, pain free, normal strength, & relaxation of antagonists
what is the difference between range of joint motion & range of muscle length?
range of joint motion is mobility (e.g. hypermobility/hypomobility) and range of muscle length is the length of a muscle at a joint/joints
can hold test against strong pressure; unable to break patient's position
what are two reasons validity would be poor for goinometric measurements?
poor stabilization & movements of joint axis during measurement
firm end feel
capsular stretch, ligament, muscle
normal ROM for cervical extension
which type of muscle can shorten through a full ROM?
a 1-joint muscle; 2-joint muscles can't contract through full ROM
normal ROM for ER
factors affecting muscle flexibility & extensibility (5)
(1) prolonged immobilization, (2) restricted joint mobility, (3) neuromuscular diseases, (4) traumatic tissue pathology, (5) connective tissue diseases
normal ROM for shoulder flexion
full ROM in gravity eliminated position
normal ROM for cervical flexion
no movement or contraction
clinically, which side do you test first?
what is normal muscle length
has the flexibility
and extensibility required
to allow normal joint
against gravity (Full ROM); no pressure applied
when measuring ROM, what is done to the distal segment of joint?
taken through full range of motion
normal ROM for shoulder abduction
MLT involves elongating the muscle in what direction?
direction opposite of its action
normal ROM for cervical rotation
hard end feel
fibers run obliquely (ex. rectus femoris)
what are the terms associated with muscle strength grading?
5 - normal
4 - good
3 - fair
2 - poor
1 - trace
0 - none
what concept is important to consider to 2-joint muscle when measuring muscle length?
passive insufficency; 2-joint muscles do not have sufficient extensibility
to lengthen through full ROM for both joints
occurs at joint surface, can't be seen
full range of motion of a joint is limited due to the length of the muscle (as opposed to ligaments or structural inhibition)
similar to a level, uses air or liquid
muscle maintained in a central nervous system pathology that is maintaining the muscle in a constant state of contracture (causes increased tone)
when examiner applies external pressure to force patient to
give in during muscle testing
full ROM gravity eliminated with minimal resistance OR partial ROM against gravity
what are 4 ways to maximize reliability?
always use the same instrument, position, procedure & examiner
purpose of MMT (3)
(1) detect weakness, (2) detect imbalances, (3) determine ability of muscles to function in movement and provide stability and support
The adaptive shortening of the muscle, leading to tightness (no pathology, could be as a result of poor posture)
fibers arranged side by side (ex. pec major)
what can cause weakness? (5)
nerve involvement, disuse atrophy, stretch weakness, pain, fatigue
parallel fibers with flat tendons (ex. biceps)
when a two joint muscle is no longer able
to generate an effective force due to being placed in a fully shortened
how do you isolate the 1 joint muscle in MMT?
put the two joint muscle on slack
parallel to stationary segment
scar tissue adhesions
connective tissue bound down to each other
when measuring ROM, what is done to the proximal segment of joint?
normal ROM for IR
in line with axis of motion
factors affecting PROM (2)
integrity of joint surfaces and extensibility of soft tissue
which motion should be more, passive or active
how is strength affected by muscle length?
length tension relationship
parallel to moving segment
optimal test position for MMT of 1-joint muscle
Factors Affecting ROM (5)
(1) gender, (2) age, (3) muscle bulk, (4) joint capsule laxity, (5) skin extensibility
soft end feel
occurs when soft tissue come in contact (muscle on muscle)
characteristics of dysfunctional ROM
pain, limited ROM, compensation, unwillingness to move
what are the curvatures of the spine?
what is the purpose of the spinal curvatures?
help the spine absorb load
what are the main functions of the superficial (global) and deep (local) muscles of the spine?
superficial: move joints
deep: stabilize the spine