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Flashcards in Exam II Deck (67):
1

normal ROM for elbow flexion

150 degrees

2

normal ROM for elbow extension

0 degrees

3

normal ROM for elbow pronation

80 degrees

4

normal ROM for elbow supination

80 degrees

5

normal ROM for wrist flexion

80 degrees

6

normal ROM for wrist extension

70 degrees

7

normal ROM for radial deviation

20 degrees

8

normal ROM for ulnar deviation

30 degrees

9

normal ROM for MCP flexion

90 degrees

10

normal ROM for MCP extension

45 degrees

11

normal ROM for PIP flexion

100 degrees

12

normal ROM for PIP extension

0 degrees

13

normal ROM for DIP flexion

90 degrees

14

normal ROM for DIP extension

0 degrees

15

normal ROM for MCP abduction

no norm

16

normal ROM for MCP adduction

no norm

17

normal ROM for CMC extension

20-80 degrees

18

normal ROM for CMC flexion

15 degrees

19

normal ROM for CMC abduction

70 degrees

20

normal ROM for CMC adduction

0 degrees

21

what are the primary and secondary flexors of the elbow?

primary
(1) biceps
(2) brachialis
(3) brachioradialis
secondary
(1) pronator teres
(2) ECRL

22

what position is the biceps brachii stronger as a flexor of the forearm?

supinated (think biceps curl)

23

in addition to flexing the forearm, what does the biceps brachii flex?

the long head flexes the shoulder

24

what are the primary and secondary extensors of the elbow?

primary
(1) triceps
secondary
(1) anconeus

25

what are the primary and secondary pronators of the elbow?

primary
(1) pronator teres
(2) pronator quadratus
secondary
(1) flexor carpi radialis
(2) brachioradialis

26

what are the primary supinators of the elbow?

primary
(1) biceps brachii
(2) supinator

27

what are the primary and secondary flexors of the wrist?

primary
(1) flexor carpi radialis
(2) flexor carpi ulnaris
(3) palmaris longus
secondary
(1) flexor digitorum superficialis
(2) flexor digitorum profundus

28

what are the primary and secondary extensors of the wrist?

primary
(1) ECRL
(2) ECRB
(3) extensor carpi ulnaris
secondary
(1) extensor digitorum
(2) extensor digiti minimi
(3) extensor indicis

29

what are the primary and secondary ulnar deviators of the wrist?

primary
(1) extensor carpi ulnaris
(2) flexor carpi ulnaris
secondary
(1) extensor digiti minimi
(2) flexor digitorum profundus

30

what are the primary and secondary radial deviators of the wrist?

primary
(1) ECRL
(2) ECRB
(3) FCR
(4) abductor pollicis longus
(5) extensor pollicis brevis

31

chronic nerve inflammation may lead to what in areas of the skin innervated by sensory nerves?

hypersensitivity and allodynia

32

what is allodynia?

pain with touch

33

what is a myotome?

a muscle or group of muscles served by a single nerve root

34

what is a dermatome?

the area of skin supplied by a single nerve root

35

what is a sclerotome?

area of bone or fascia supplied by a single nerve root

36

what is a deep tendon reflex (DTR)?

a brisk contraction of a muscle in response to a sudden stretch induced by a sharp tap on the tendon at the insertion of the muscle

37

how are myotomes graded?

0-5; same as MMTs

38

what do myotomes test?

gross muscle movements, not individual muscles

39

what is hyporeflexia?

an absent or diminished response to DTR

40

what is hyperreflexia?

the hyperactive or repeating (clonic) response to DTR

41

how do you grade DTR?

Grade 0 = no response; always abnormal
Grade 1 = a slight but definitely present response; may or may not be normal
Grade 2 = a brisk response; normal
Grade 3 = a very brisk response; may or may not be normal
Grade 4 = hypertonic. a tap elicits a repeating reflex (clonus); always abnormal

42

how to differentiate between a spinal nerve and peripheral nerve issue?

muscular issues
-if a gross movement is affected, more likely to be myotome or SPINAL nerve
-if an individual muscle is affected (using MMT), more likely to be a PERIPHERAL nerve

43

when hyperreflexia presents, where does that indicate the lesion is located?

CNS Lesion

44

when hyporeflexia presents, where does that indicate the lesion is located?

Peripheral Nerve lesion

45

C1-C2 myotome

neck flexion

46

C3 myotome

neck side flexion

47

C4 myotome

shoulder/scapular elevation

48

C5 myotome

shoulder abduction / ER

49

C6 myotome

elbow flexion or wrist extension

50

C7 myotome

elbow extension or wrist flexion

51

C8 myotome

thumb extension or ulnar deviation

52

T1 myotome

hand intrinsics

53

C1 dermatome

anterior/superior cranium

54

C2 dermatome

posterior cranium

55

C3 dermatome

lateral upper-mid cervical spine

56

C4 dermatome

superior and lateral shoulder

57

C5 dermatome

lateral arm

58

C6 dermatome

lateral thumb

59

C7 dermatome

dorsal midline of hand

60

C8 dermatome

ulnar forearm/hand

61

T1 dermatome

medial elbow

62

DTR test for biceps

C5-C6

63

DTR test for brachioradialis

C6

64

DTR test for triceps

C7-C8

65

which muscles produce scapular retraction?

(1) middle traps
(2) rhomboids

66

which muscles produce downward rotation of the scapula? (4)

(1) pec minor
(2) rhomboids
(3) levator scapulae
(4) lats

67

what muscles upwardly rotate the scapula?

(1) serratus anterior
(2) traps (upper and lower together)