Flashcards in Exam I Deck (44):
What are the four criteria used to define abnormality?
Dysfunction, Distress, Deviant, Dangerous
What is cultural relativism?
view that there is no universal standards or rules for labeling a behavior as abnormal, behaviors can only be abnormal relative to cultural norms
What is the continuum model of abnormality?
No clear line between normal and abnormal, all psychological problems fall along a continuum, and psychologists must make subjective decisions about what warrants a diagnosis or treatment
What is prevalence?
number or percentage of cases of a disorder in a populations at any specific time
What is Incidence?
number or percentage of cases that have appeared within a specific time
What are some ways prevalence and incidence estimates can be biased?
sampling (sampling (clinic (ppl who see doc) vs. community (more accurate)), measures (how administered, who responds), and diagnostic criteria (version of DSM, strictness)
What is trephination? At the time that it was done, what was it proposed to do?
Crude brain surgery done on people with mental disorders, they drilled or cut away at the skull with a tool called trephine, in order to release evil spirits
What is a syndrome?
A set of symptoms that occur together
What is internal validity?
approximate truth about inferences regarding cause-effect relationship
•Based on a given study, how certain are you that X really causes Y?
What is external validity?
extent to which the findings of a study can be generalized beyond the sample
•To what degree do the results of this study apply to the larger population?
What is confirmation bias?
The tendency for people to favor information that supports their hypothesis or beliefs
Can you infer causation from a correlation?
You can not infer causation from correlation because of third variable problem
What is random assignment?
each participant must have an equal chance of being in the experimental group or control group, internal validity requires this
What is a meta-analysis?
A statistical technique for summarizing results across several studies
What is effect size?
gives an indication of how big the differences are between two groups
What is the file drawer effect?
studies that do not support the hypothesis they are designed to test are less likely to get published that studies that do, could mean that meta-analysis could find overall positive effect of treatment even if it may be more negative, it just wasn’t written about
What is reliability?
Is consistency, but can be inaccurate `
What is standardization?
Standard set of criteria
Mini Mental Status Exam
briefly assesses client’s orientation to person/place/time/memory/judgment…
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
Person’s responses compared against responses of people with different personality issues or problems, Strong reliability and validity
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), Rorschach Inkblot test
Very limited reliability and validity
Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II)
Individual self-reports on various symptoms of psychological disorders Generally good reliability; limited validity
Quick and inexpensive to administer and score
Good for tracking symptoms throughout the course of treatment
What are the different Axis of the DSM?
•Axis I: Clinical Psychiatric Syndrome (disorders covered this sem)
•Axis II: Personality Disorder (Adults) or Low intellectual functioning (kids/adolescents)
•Axis III: Physical Disorders
•Axis IV: Psychosocial Stressors
•Homeless, trauma, financial problems, legal problems….
•Axis V: Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF; 1-100)
psychopathology develops from an interaction of biological, psychological and social factors – intelligence, coping skills, neuroticism, social factors, stress, etc
predisposition/vulnerability (diathesis) + stress (e.g. alcohol, drugs, etc.) having the predisposition and a trigger/stress = develop the disease/disorder
when receiving neuron releases an enzyme into the synapse that breaks down the NT into other biochemicals
A multi-gene process that takes multiple genetic abnormalities coming together in one individual to create a disorder. Most of the genetic models of the major types of mental disorders are polygenic, as well as many physiological disorders.
the study of heritable changes in the expression of genes without the change in gene sequence
•Genes and environment can interact by the environment acting as a catalyst for a genetic tendency, environment can effect genes
What factors can lead to brain dysfunction?
•Brain damage, biochemical imbalances, genetic abnormalities
ECT - electroconvulsive therapy
originally used for SZ, now used for depression, induce brain seizures by electrical current through brain
deep brain stimulation
electrodes are surgically implanted in specific areas of the brain connected to pulse generator
broad beliefs about ourselves, our relationships and the world
when something happens to us we ask why that event happened – “WHY”
one fact becomes an all-compassing rule or law w/o questioning it
world is seen in extremes with no in-between
focusing on negative feedback, ignoring or minimizing any positive feedback
assuming that everything revolves around you
Assuming what someone else is thinking without asking for feedback
Belief that the world will come to an end if a particular event does or doesn’t occur
I feel X, therefore I must be X
Belief that a certain outcome will happen leads a person to unconsciously behave in such a way as to make that outcome occur
Belief that you either have total responsibility for everyone/everything or that you have no control and are helpless victim
Very strict rules we have for ourselves and others; feel guilty when we break them and angry at others when they do