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Flashcards in Exam III Deck (66):
1

Conditioned Avoidance Response

When you associate certain situations with symptoms of panic, then avoiding these places because it reduces anxiety symptoms thus reinforcing the avoidance behavior

2

Prepared Classical Conditioning

Our ancestors learned to fear and avoid certain objects or events that were dangerous, they passed them down, today we carry these and are biologically prepared to learn certain associations quickly

3

Implosion Therapy

Imagine anxious ridden situation in head until anxiety decreases

4

Flooding

Immerse the person in anxious ridden situation/setting until anxiety goes away

5

Secondary Gain

Emotional support or gain of attention

6

What are four questions that are asked to determine where along the continuum (from normal to abnormal) anxiety symptoms fall?

How realistic is it?
How severe is it?
How persistent is it?
How problematic or impairing is it?

7

What are the most common obsessions people with OCD have?

Germs, aggressive impulses, sexual thoughts, repeated doubts, impulses to do something against your moral code (obsessive thoughts)
Checking compulsions

8

Amenorreha

The extreme weight loss causes women and girls who have begun their menstruating to stop having menstrual cycles

9

Restricting type of Anorexia Nervosa

simply refuse to eat as a way of preventing weight gain

10

Binge/Purge type of Anorexia Nervosa

people periodically engage in bingeing or purging behaviors (are still below the 15% below healthy body weight and have amenorrhea)

11

Purging type of Bulimia Nervosa

people who self induce vomiting, or use purging medications to avoid weight gain

12

Nonpurging type of Bulimia Nervosa

people who use excessive exercise or fasting to control their weight, but do not engage in purging

13

Complications of Anorexia

Lanugo (fine hair on newborns), gastritis (inflammation of stomach), hair loss, bradycardia (slowed heart rate), arrhythmia, hypothermia, osteopenia/osteoporosis, kidney problems, fertility problems

14

Complications of Bulimia

Tooth decay, electrolyte imbalance, intestinal dysfunction, dehydration, fatigue, swollen glands, kidney problems, fertility problems

15

What are some examples of Eating Disorder NOS?

Chewing and spitting out food, not swallowing
Purging after eating small amounts of food (like after 2 cookies)
Binging/Purging happens less than required for diagnosis

16

Partial-Syndrome Eating Disorders

Syndromes on the less severe end of the continuum of eating disorders that don’t meet the full criteria for anorexia or bulimia

17

Ten years after treatment for an eating disorder, what percent of people are symptom free?

~40% fully recover

18

Ten years after treatment for an eating disorder, how many people have improved but are occasionally symptomatic?

~ 35% Functioning better; some eating disorder symptoms

19

Ten years after treatment for an eating disorder, how many people are chronically ill?

~ 25% chronically ill

20

Ego Syntonic

in line with persons self-image, less likely to change

21

Ego Dystonic

at odds with persons self-image, more likely to change

22

On what axis are personality disorders placed?

Axis II

23

What are the different clusters of personality disorders?

Odd, Eccentric
Dramatic, Erratic
Anxious, fearful

24

What are the five dimensions of the Five Factor Model of Personality (AKA: “The Big Five”)?

Openness
Conscientiousness
Extraversion
Agreeableness
Neuroticism

25

Paranoid PD

Chronic, pervasive mistrust and suspicion of other people that is unwarranted and maladaptive

26

Schizoid PD

chronic lack of interest in avoidance of interpersonal relationships; emotional coldness toward others

27

Schizotypal PD

Chronic pattern of inhibited or inappropriate emotion and social behavior, aberrant cognitions, disorganized speech

28

Avoidant PD

pervasive anxiety, a sense of inadequacy, and fear of being criticized, which leads to the avoidance of social interactions and nervousness

29

Dependent PD

Pervasive selflessness, need to be cared for, fear of rejection, leading to total dependence on a submission to others

30

Obsessive-Compulsive PD

Pervasive rigidity in one’s activities and interpersonal relationships, including emotional construction, extreme perfectionism, and anxiety about even minor disruptions in one’s routine

31

What does the acronym FUMES refer to?

Fearless
Unresponsive to pain
Muscular
Empathy deficient
Stimulation seeking

32

According to [MW], what are the two main factors of psychopathy?

- The Affective-Cognitive Instability: glibness, a grandiose sense of self, pathological lying, conning-manipulative behaviors, lack of remorse, shallow affect, callousness and lack of empathy, and failure to accept responsibility
- The Behavioral-Social Deviance: higher need for stimulation, a parasitic lifestyle, poor behavioral controls, early behavioral problems, lack of realistic goals, impulsivity, irresponsibility, having been adjudicated delinquent, and a history of violating supervision or probation.

33

Understand the various factors that contribute to the development of psychopathy, as described in [MW]

o Environmental factors such as poverty, exposure to violence, sexual or physical abuse, dishonesty, substance abuse, deviant sexual patterns…

34

Dementia

characterized by a number of cognitive defects – mostly memory deficit (doesn’t return spontaneously or come back because of cues)

35

Delirium

characterized by disorientation, recent memory loss, and a clouding of consciousness

36

Amnesia

- Unlike dementia and delirium, in amnesic disorders only memory is affected
- Can be caused by TBI, illness (e.g. cancer, encephalopathy) stroke, etc.
- Loose autobiographical information

37

Anterograde Amnesia

impaired ability to learn new information

38

Retrograde Amnesia

impaired ability to recall previously learned information

39

Aphasia

language disturbance, language deterioration

40

Echolalia

unable to understand what a person says so repeating what you hear

41

Palilalia

unable to understand what a person says so repeating sounds or words over and over

42

Apraxia

inability to carry out motor activities, even though limbs work fine, message from brain to limbs doesn’t work (common actions like waving or putting on a shirt)

43

Agnosia

failure to recognize or identify objects despite intact sensory functioning

44

What is Alzheimer’s disease? What are the brain abnormalities associated with it, and what are the etiological theories of it?

- Begins with mild memory loss, as disease progresses the deterioration and memory loss become profound
- Brain abnormalities are: Tangles (inside the cell, prevents cell from getting nutrients = cell death) Plaques: deposits of a protein between cells important for cell communication // shrinking of cortex // enlargement of ventricles // cell death in brain
- Etiological theories: genes that might transmit a vulnerability to this disorder and on the beta-amyloid proteins that form the plaques in AZ patients

45

What are medical conditions that can cause dementia?

Parkinson’s disease
HIV
Huntington’s Disease

46

Sun-Downing

Cognitive abilities become worse at night

47

Korsakoff’s

in heavy alcohol uses can cause damage to the thalamus (part of the brain that acts as a relay station for other parts of the brain) and is like amnesia

48

What are the most common anxiety disorders diagnosed in older adults?

Anxiety is the most common 15% over the age of 65 experience it (GAD)

49

What makes medication management of anxiety disorders in older adults more challenging than in younger adults?

o Medication management: with age comes changes in drug absorption and distribution, metabolism and sensitivity to side effects also tolerance build up

50

How common is depression in older adults and how does it reduce quality and length of life among this population?

o 1-5% of older people have depression in general pop, in care/homes = 12-20%
- Suicide is highest for older white males who are depressed
- Is a great burden on quality of life
- Depression can hasten the progression of several medical diseases

51

Depletion Syndrome

many depressed elders show loss of interest, loss of energy, hopelessness, helplessness, and psychomotor retardation

52

Complicated Grief

often leads to clinical depression, tends to be characterized by profound guilt, thoughts that one would be better off dead, profound inactivity, persistent impairment in functioning, and hallucinations that go beyond the common experience of hearing or seeing a dead loved one

53

What disorders can be easily mistaken for depression in older adults?

Dementia

54

What are some ways that depression can be differentiated from dementia?

- People who are depressed usually have less severe memory problems then people with dementia, and they are also more aware of their memory problems than people with dementia
- The noncognitive symptoms of depression (hopelessness, fatigue, loss of motivation) tend to be ore severe in people with depression than dementia
- Depressed people have problems with free recall memory tasks but not recognition memory tasks, people with dementia have problems with both

55

What substance abuse disorders do older adults tend to develop?

- Alcohol abuse
- Older adults are more likely and no misuse and abuse prescription drugs compared to younger people (1/3rd)

56

Parkinson’s Disease

is a degenerative disease that affects the nervous system – tremors, muscular stiffness, weakness in throat and facial muscles, stiffness in legs neck, talking and swallowing becomes difficult and taxing, Bradykinesia (slowness in goal-directed movement, and poor balance and postural instability

57

Pseudo-Parkinson’s Disease

seems to come more directly from accumulated head trauma, does not display all symptoms directly related to Parkinson’s disease

58

What are the 4 different types of reactions to anxiety?

Somatic
Cognitive
Emotional
Behavioral

59

What are the somatic reactions to anxiety?

increase in heart rate & respiration, muscle tension, shaking, dry mouth

60

What are the Cognitive reactions to anxiety?

anticipation of harm, rumination, sense of unreality, problems concentrating

61

What are the emotional reactions to anxiety?

fear, terror, irritability, restlessness, dread

62

What are the behavioral reactions to anxiety?

Escape, avoidance, hypervigilance (big eyes on the lookout), aggression, freezing

63

Specific Phobia

• Marked and persistent fear of an object or situation (irrational because have never had a bad experience with phobia)
• Exposure provokes immediate anxiety response
- Recognition that fear is excessive or unreasonable (not for children)
- Avoid or endure with intense distress
- Produces marked distress or interferes with normal functioning

64

Specific Phobia lifetime prevalence

13%

65

Specific Phobia course

begins during childhood, stable and persistent

66

Specific Phobia comorbidity

- Other Anxiety Disorders, Major Depression, and Oppositional Defiant Disorder
- However, more likely than any other anxiety disorder to be circumscribed
- 90% of people with specific phobia don’t seek treatment