Flashcards in Exam III Deck (66):
Conditioned Avoidance Response
When you associate certain situations with symptoms of panic, then avoiding these places because it reduces anxiety symptoms thus reinforcing the avoidance behavior
Prepared Classical Conditioning
Our ancestors learned to fear and avoid certain objects or events that were dangerous, they passed them down, today we carry these and are biologically prepared to learn certain associations quickly
Imagine anxious ridden situation in head until anxiety decreases
Immerse the person in anxious ridden situation/setting until anxiety goes away
Emotional support or gain of attention
What are four questions that are asked to determine where along the continuum (from normal to abnormal) anxiety symptoms fall?
How realistic is it?
How severe is it?
How persistent is it?
How problematic or impairing is it?
What are the most common obsessions people with OCD have?
Germs, aggressive impulses, sexual thoughts, repeated doubts, impulses to do something against your moral code (obsessive thoughts)
The extreme weight loss causes women and girls who have begun their menstruating to stop having menstrual cycles
Restricting type of Anorexia Nervosa
simply refuse to eat as a way of preventing weight gain
Binge/Purge type of Anorexia Nervosa
people periodically engage in bingeing or purging behaviors (are still below the 15% below healthy body weight and have amenorrhea)
Purging type of Bulimia Nervosa
people who self induce vomiting, or use purging medications to avoid weight gain
Nonpurging type of Bulimia Nervosa
people who use excessive exercise or fasting to control their weight, but do not engage in purging
Complications of Anorexia
Lanugo (fine hair on newborns), gastritis (inflammation of stomach), hair loss, bradycardia (slowed heart rate), arrhythmia, hypothermia, osteopenia/osteoporosis, kidney problems, fertility problems
Complications of Bulimia
Tooth decay, electrolyte imbalance, intestinal dysfunction, dehydration, fatigue, swollen glands, kidney problems, fertility problems
What are some examples of Eating Disorder NOS?
Chewing and spitting out food, not swallowing
Purging after eating small amounts of food (like after 2 cookies)
Binging/Purging happens less than required for diagnosis
Partial-Syndrome Eating Disorders
Syndromes on the less severe end of the continuum of eating disorders that don’t meet the full criteria for anorexia or bulimia
Ten years after treatment for an eating disorder, what percent of people are symptom free?
~40% fully recover
Ten years after treatment for an eating disorder, how many people have improved but are occasionally symptomatic?
~ 35% Functioning better; some eating disorder symptoms
Ten years after treatment for an eating disorder, how many people are chronically ill?
~ 25% chronically ill
in line with persons self-image, less likely to change
at odds with persons self-image, more likely to change
On what axis are personality disorders placed?
What are the different clusters of personality disorders?
What are the five dimensions of the Five Factor Model of Personality (AKA: “The Big Five”)?
Chronic, pervasive mistrust and suspicion of other people that is unwarranted and maladaptive
chronic lack of interest in avoidance of interpersonal relationships; emotional coldness toward others
Chronic pattern of inhibited or inappropriate emotion and social behavior, aberrant cognitions, disorganized speech
pervasive anxiety, a sense of inadequacy, and fear of being criticized, which leads to the avoidance of social interactions and nervousness
Pervasive selflessness, need to be cared for, fear of rejection, leading to total dependence on a submission to others
Pervasive rigidity in one’s activities and interpersonal relationships, including emotional construction, extreme perfectionism, and anxiety about even minor disruptions in one’s routine
What does the acronym FUMES refer to?
Unresponsive to pain
According to [MW], what are the two main factors of psychopathy?
- The Affective-Cognitive Instability: glibness, a grandiose sense of self, pathological lying, conning-manipulative behaviors, lack of remorse, shallow affect, callousness and lack of empathy, and failure to accept responsibility
- The Behavioral-Social Deviance: higher need for stimulation, a parasitic lifestyle, poor behavioral controls, early behavioral problems, lack of realistic goals, impulsivity, irresponsibility, having been adjudicated delinquent, and a history of violating supervision or probation.
Understand the various factors that contribute to the development of psychopathy, as described in [MW]
o Environmental factors such as poverty, exposure to violence, sexual or physical abuse, dishonesty, substance abuse, deviant sexual patterns…
characterized by a number of cognitive defects – mostly memory deficit (doesn’t return spontaneously or come back because of cues)
characterized by disorientation, recent memory loss, and a clouding of consciousness
- Unlike dementia and delirium, in amnesic disorders only memory is affected
- Can be caused by TBI, illness (e.g. cancer, encephalopathy) stroke, etc.
- Loose autobiographical information
impaired ability to learn new information
impaired ability to recall previously learned information
language disturbance, language deterioration
unable to understand what a person says so repeating what you hear
unable to understand what a person says so repeating sounds or words over and over
inability to carry out motor activities, even though limbs work fine, message from brain to limbs doesn’t work (common actions like waving or putting on a shirt)
failure to recognize or identify objects despite intact sensory functioning
What is Alzheimer’s disease? What are the brain abnormalities associated with it, and what are the etiological theories of it?
- Begins with mild memory loss, as disease progresses the deterioration and memory loss become profound
- Brain abnormalities are: Tangles (inside the cell, prevents cell from getting nutrients = cell death) Plaques: deposits of a protein between cells important for cell communication // shrinking of cortex // enlargement of ventricles // cell death in brain
- Etiological theories: genes that might transmit a vulnerability to this disorder and on the beta-amyloid proteins that form the plaques in AZ patients
What are medical conditions that can cause dementia?
Cognitive abilities become worse at night
in heavy alcohol uses can cause damage to the thalamus (part of the brain that acts as a relay station for other parts of the brain) and is like amnesia
What are the most common anxiety disorders diagnosed in older adults?
Anxiety is the most common 15% over the age of 65 experience it (GAD)
What makes medication management of anxiety disorders in older adults more challenging than in younger adults?
o Medication management: with age comes changes in drug absorption and distribution, metabolism and sensitivity to side effects also tolerance build up
How common is depression in older adults and how does it reduce quality and length of life among this population?
o 1-5% of older people have depression in general pop, in care/homes = 12-20%
- Suicide is highest for older white males who are depressed
- Is a great burden on quality of life
- Depression can hasten the progression of several medical diseases
many depressed elders show loss of interest, loss of energy, hopelessness, helplessness, and psychomotor retardation
often leads to clinical depression, tends to be characterized by profound guilt, thoughts that one would be better off dead, profound inactivity, persistent impairment in functioning, and hallucinations that go beyond the common experience of hearing or seeing a dead loved one
What disorders can be easily mistaken for depression in older adults?
What are some ways that depression can be differentiated from dementia?
- People who are depressed usually have less severe memory problems then people with dementia, and they are also more aware of their memory problems than people with dementia
- The noncognitive symptoms of depression (hopelessness, fatigue, loss of motivation) tend to be ore severe in people with depression than dementia
- Depressed people have problems with free recall memory tasks but not recognition memory tasks, people with dementia have problems with both
What substance abuse disorders do older adults tend to develop?
- Alcohol abuse
- Older adults are more likely and no misuse and abuse prescription drugs compared to younger people (1/3rd)
is a degenerative disease that affects the nervous system – tremors, muscular stiffness, weakness in throat and facial muscles, stiffness in legs neck, talking and swallowing becomes difficult and taxing, Bradykinesia (slowness in goal-directed movement, and poor balance and postural instability
seems to come more directly from accumulated head trauma, does not display all symptoms directly related to Parkinson’s disease
What are the 4 different types of reactions to anxiety?
What are the somatic reactions to anxiety?
increase in heart rate & respiration, muscle tension, shaking, dry mouth
What are the Cognitive reactions to anxiety?
anticipation of harm, rumination, sense of unreality, problems concentrating
What are the emotional reactions to anxiety?
fear, terror, irritability, restlessness, dread
What are the behavioral reactions to anxiety?
Escape, avoidance, hypervigilance (big eyes on the lookout), aggression, freezing
• Marked and persistent fear of an object or situation (irrational because have never had a bad experience with phobia)
• Exposure provokes immediate anxiety response
- Recognition that fear is excessive or unreasonable (not for children)
- Avoid or endure with intense distress
- Produces marked distress or interferes with normal functioning
Specific Phobia lifetime prevalence
Specific Phobia course
begins during childhood, stable and persistent