Exam II - Equine Head (& Some Bovine) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam II - Equine Head (& Some Bovine) Deck (44)
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Which foramen & nerve are covered by the levator labii superioris m. in the horse?

infraorbital foramen & infraorbital nerve


Compare the position of the parotid duct of the equine to that of the canine.

In the horse, the parotid duct runs ventrally underneath the masseter m.  

In the dog, the parotid gland ran over the middle of the masseter m.


What is the only muscle that opens the jaw in the horse?

digastricus m.

(same as canine)


What are the muscles of mastication in the horse?

  • Masseter m.
  • Temporalis m.
  • Pterygoid m.
  • Digastricus m.

(same as in the canine)


What are the borders of Viborg's Triangle?

  1. Sternocephalicus m.
  2. Linguofacial v.
  3. Caudal border of the ramus (of the mandible)

Viborg's Triangle can be used to access the salivary glands in this area as well as to access the guttural pouch (to drain infection from it)


Describe the difference we observe in the nasolacrimal duct of donkeys vs. that of canines

In donkeys, the opening for the nasolacrimal duct is lateral.


What is the the nasolacrimal duct carrying?  To where?

The nasolacrimal duct carries tears from the lacrimal sac into the nasal cavity.


Which salivary gland in the horse is equivalent to the zygomatic salivary gland in the dog?

Buccal salivary gland

(it is divided into dorsal & ventral buccal salivary glands)


How many salivary glands are present in the horse?  Name them.

Four (same as in the dog)

  1. Mandibular Salivary Gland
  2. Sublingual Salivary Gland
    • Monostomatic & Polystomatic
  3. Parotid Salivary Gland
  4. Buccal Salivary Gland
    • Dorsal Buccal and Ventral Buccal


Which type of salivary gland has only one opening where saliva is expelled?



Which structure(s) is/are present at the root of the tongue on either side that are not present in the canine?

lingual tonsils

Note that these do not replace the palatine tonsils.  Horses still have palatine tonsils too.


Is the horse a mouth breather or a nasal-breather?

Horses are obligate nasal-breathers.

The epiglottis in the horse lies dorsal to the soft palate.  So if the horse tried to breathe through its mouth, it wouldn't be able to because the epiglottis would close off the trachea when air entered the laryngopharynx.


Where would you pass a nasogastric tube in a horse?

Through the ventral nasal meatus and down into the esophagus.

Due to the layout of the epiglottis, you cannot pass an orogastric tube in a horse.


When the epiglottis gets trapped under the soft palate in the horse, this is referred to as:

dorsal displacement of the soft palate

When this happens, there will be difficulty breathing.  If you do an examination of the larynx with a laryngoscope, you won't see the epiglottis at all.


When the epiglottis gets caught under a fold of mucosa in the horse, causing an abnormality in the shape and texture of the epiglottis, this is referred to as:

epiglottic entrapment


The large sac-like structure off the caudal aspect of the auditory tube is called the:

guttural pouch

This pouch is bounded laterally by the Pterygoid m. and the Mandibular Salivary Glands


The guttural pouches are in close proximity to several important structures.  What are those structures?

  • CN IX, X, XI, XII
  • Sympathetic trunk
  • Internal carotid a, External carotid a., & linguofacial a.


The two halves of the guttural pouches are reffered to as _______________.

Which is larger?

medial & lateral compartments.

The medial compartment is larger


Which sinus is rostral to and continuous with the frontal sinus in the horse?

The two of these sinuses together are called:

Dorsal concha sinus

The Dorsal concha sinus and the frontal sinus together are called the conchofrontal sinus.


The hole through which the conchofrontal and maxillary sinuses communicate is called the:

frontomaxillary opening

this is important because if there is an infection in the maxillary sinus, there is a good chance it is also in the frontal sinus


Regarding laryngeal structure: What is different about the arytenoid cartilage in the horse vs. that of the dog

There is no cuneiform process of the arytenoid cartilage in the horse


Which nerve in the horse passes underneath the cricoarytenoideus dorsalis m. and innervates the intrinsic muscles of the larynx (expect the cricothyroideus)?

caudal laryngeal nerve


Which nerve in the horse lies on the lateral surface of the guttural pouch and innervates the cricothyroideus m?

cranial laryngeal n.

It also provides sensory innervation to the mucous membranes of the larynx.


What is the only muscle that opens the glottis?

cricoarytenoideus dorsalis


The condition caused by partial paralysis in the intrinsic muscles of the larynx is called ____________, and is also known as roaring

Laryngeal hemiplagia



Venipuncture in the equine head can be performed using which vein(s)?

external jugular v., transverse facial v., or deep facial v.*

*If using deep facial v, use the facial crest to guide you.  Place the needle just under the facial crest and parralel with it.


Identify the vessel labeled A

Deep facial vein


What is the main muscle used in the Flehmen's Response?

levator labii superioris m.


Name the muscular landmark for finding the infraorbital nerve in the equine

levator labii superioris m.


Woah, leg question!

What is the principal artery to the bovine metacarpus?

palmar common digital a.