Exam Review Semester1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam Review Semester1 Deck (68):
0

Rene Descartes was the founder of what?

Rationalism

1

Rationalism brought _______________________________.

Philosophical perspective to science

2

Sir Francis Bacon founded what?

Scientific Method

3

What is Scientific Method?

procedure for collecting & analyzing data

4

Inductive Reasoning -

Doesn't rely on authorities, observe & experiment, and specific to broad

5

Who created / came up with the ideas of Enlightenment?

Philosophers / scholar, to make progress towards society

6

Who were Philosophers -

deep thinkers ; ask deep questions (authors & scientists)

7

What were the goals of the Enlightenment ?

To improve society
and search for the truth

8

What were the main ideas of enlightenment ?

Reason , natural rights , hope , progress , & reform

9

source about a historical event that was created during the event -

Primary Source

10

Letters , diaries , furniture , clothing - were all examples of what source?

Primary source

11

source that was furthered moved from the event , used primary sources -

Secondary sources

12

Textbooks , magazines , articles - examples of what source?

Secondary Source

13

The reason & knowledge discovered by philosphers/scientists throughout Europe in the 18 century -

Enlightenment

14

The Enlightenment begins w/ _______ ________, and the coming out of dark ages -

Scientific Revolution

15

T or F - lots of people were UNeducated during this time.

TRUE

16

Renissance means -

Rebirth

17

what idea helped spread the ideas of enlightenment ?

The printing press

18

founded elliptical orbits -

Kepler

19

Founded the telescope ; and was excommunicated from the church because of his theories -

Galileo

20

Father of physics ; his ideas led to the rise of modern physics -

Newton

21

He dissected human bodies -

Vesalius

22

he proved substances are made of basic elements & cannot be broken down -

Boyle

23

The spread of the enlightenment caused three things:

1. people can now read
2. printing press
3. salons

24

bad things were happening to "religion", like what?

attacks on the church
splits
methodist movement

25

the spread of the enlightenment caused the arts to create -

music, artitecture, and palaces

26

Natural Rights -

rights you have automatically when you are born

27

Three things of the Natural Rights -

freedom of religion, freedom of press , and right to hold property

28

T or F- enlightenment started at the bottom w/ people.

trye

29

T or F- the reform started at the top w/ congress

True

30

enlighted despots -

new type of monarchy

31

who said "humans are naturally wicked" ? and he also came up with "Social Contract" -

Hobbes

32

he believed in natural rights & self government. He said the governement should protect these rights - life, liberty, and property --

Locke

33

he created the seperation of powers & he was a french noble -

Montesquieu

34

He critized christianity & challenged the church. He also built on Newton's word.

Voltaire

35

he writes a book called "Social Contract"

Rosseau

36

fought against men having power over women is wrong -

Wollstonecraft

37

he is the founder of economics ; came up with laissez faire ; also said the government has 3 tasks:
1. protect society
2. defend citizens from injustice
3. maintain public works

Smith

38

Where the earth and planets revolve around the sun (sun-centered)

Heliocentric

39

Thought on the belief that reason is a good source of knowledge -

Rationalism

40

way of gathering & analyzing the evidence of science in modern world -

Scientific Method

41

rights people have under the law

Natural Rights

42

where people agree to be ruled by its general, and all should abide to make community better

Social Contract

43

where the state doesn't impose regulations & leaves the economy alone

Laissez Faire

44

where legislative , executive , judicial powers are SEPERATE bodies

seperation of powers

45

rooms where wealthy people gathed to disscuss philosphies in the 18th centuries

Salons

46

where power is shared between state & national governements

Federal System

47

tax on property / land

Taille

48

the middle class

bourgeoisie

49

short trousers & it indicated what class

Sans - culottes

50

qualified voters

electors

51

overthrown of government

coup d' etat

52

identity of people through their language, religion, & symbols

Nationalism

53

saying people should be as free as possible from the governement

liberalism

54

philosophy based on tradition, social stability & organized religion

Conservatism

55

everyone has the right to vote

Universal Sufferage

56

the prison that the peasants tore down brick by brick

Bastille

57

Who was in the 1st Estate-

Clergy

58

Who was in the 2nd Estate-

nobility

59

Who was in the first estate-

Common townspeople

60

acts as a ruling body of France -

National Convention

61

special committee of twelve -

Committee of Public Safety

62

to protect France from threat of foreign invasion they adopted 6 policies -

Reign of Terror

63

King of France ; didn't care about ruling ; married at 15

King Louis XVI

64

Queen of France ; cared about fashion ; spent money on herself ; nickname - Madame Defict

Marie Antoinette

65

two house legislature elected by male citizens ; and a five man directory -

The directory

66

King Louis called it, told them to prepare list of concerns of government -

Estates General

67

equality before the law ; religious toleration ; abolished serfdom ; reforms old regime ; right to chose own profession

Napoleonic Code