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Flashcards in Exam Three Deck (282)
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1

Lumbar spondylolysis has not been reported in what groups of individuals?

-fetuses
-newborns
-rarely in children under five years old
-patients who have never walked
-in non-erect spines

2

What does lumbar spondylolysis appear to be related to?

the uniquely human upright stance or erect posture

3

What is the gender bias and locational bias associated with lumbar spondylolysis?

-men at L5/S1
-women at L4/L5

4

What characteristics are associated with cervical spondylolysis?

-rare
-congenital
-gender biased toward men
-most common at C6
-linked to spondylolisthesis and spina bifida

5

What characteristics are associated with sacral spondylolysis?

-rare in the general population
-within typical percents in the native Alaskan (Inuit) population
-seems to be acquired
-gender biased toward men
-most common at S1 and linked to activities as kayaking and harpooning

6

What are the types/classifications of spondylolisthesis?

-Type I spondylolisthesis (dysplastic spondylolisthesis, congenital spondylolisthesis)
-Type II spondylolisthesis (isthmic spondylolisthesis)
-Type III spondylolisthesis (degenerative spondylolisthesis)
-Type IV spondylolisthesis (traumatic spondylolisthesis)
-Type V spondylolisthesis (pathologic spondylolisthesis)

7

What gender bias, locational bias, and spinal canal dimensions are associated with type II spondylolisthesis?

-isthmic spondylolisthesis is common in men
-located at the L5/S1 level
-demonstrates an increase in sagittal diameter of the spinal canal

8

What is the gender bias, locational bias, and spinal canal dimension changes often associated with type III spondylolisthesis?

-degenerative spondylolisthesis is more common in women
-particularly at L4/:5
-demonstrates no change in sagittal diameter of the spinal canal

9

What causes type IV spondylolisthesis?

fracture of the neural arch components

10

Is there a gender, locational, or age bias associated with the type IV spondylolisthesis?

no

11

What are the cause(s) associated with type V spondylolisthesis?

bone diseases such as Paget disease or osteogenesis imperfecta

12

What muscles may attach to the median sacral crest?

-latissimus dorsi
-iliocostalis lumborum
-longissimus thoracis

13

What features may be identified along the intermediate sacral crest?

-the mammillary process of S1
-sacral cornu of S5

14

What features may be identified along the lateral sacral crest?

-S1 transverse tubercle
-sacral tuberosity of S2
-transverse tubercles of S3, S4 and S5

15

What muscles may attach to the transverse process of sacrum?

-multifidis
-iliocostalis lumborum

16

What feature does the anterior surface of the superior epiphyseal rim of S1 form?

the sacral promontory

17

The continuation of the anterior longitudinal ligament below S3 forms what ligament?

the anterior sacrococcygeal ligament

18

The continuation of the posterior longitudinal ligament below S3 forms what ligament?

the deep posterior sacrococcygeal ligament

19

What ligament is attached to the sacral hiatus?

the superficial posterior sacrococcygeal ligament

20

What joint classifications are typically present at sacrum?

-fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis
-cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis
-synovial (diarthrosis) arthrodia

21

What is the homolog for the posterior longitudinal ligament at S5?

deep posterior sacrococcygeal ligament

22

What is the homolog for the anterior longitudinal ligament at S5?

anterior sacrococcygeal ligament

23

What is the homolog for the ligamentum flavum at S5?

superficial posterior sacrococcygeal ligament

24

What is the direction of the coccygeal curve?

posterior and kyphotic

25

What is the major motion and range of motion for coccyx?

-flexion-extension
-5-20 degrees

26

How many coccygeal nerves are present in the adult?

typically only one pair of coccygeal nerves remain in the adult

27

What forms the coccygeal nerve plexus?

S4, S5 and Co1 nerves

28

What is the coccygeal glomus or coccygeal body?

an enlarged encapsulated arteriovenous anastomosis located near the last segment of coccyx

29

What joint classifications are present for coccyx?

-cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis
-fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis

30

What forms the inferior boundary for the spinal canal?

the union of the superficial posterior and deep posterior sacrococcygeal ligaments