Exam Two (Midterm) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam Two (Midterm) Deck (71):
1

What are muscles and glands?

Effectors

2

What is not an ISOTONIC contraction?

Pushing against a stationary wall

3

What is muscle tissue that has involuntary regulation of contraction?

Cardiac muscle and smooth muscle

4

What special sense is not fully functional at birth?

Vision

5

Damage to what causes loss of muscle coordination?

Cerebellum

6

What gland produces tears in the eyes?

Lacrimal glands

7

The function of the olfactory nerve concerns what?

Smell

8

What is the middle coat of the eyeball that contains pigment which prevents light from scattering in the eyeball?

Choroid

9

What do skeletal muscles need for contraction to occur?

Nerve stimulation

10

Aerobic glycolysis needs what to function?

Oxygen

11

What is the correct sequence from outermost to innermost layers of the meninges?

Dura meter
Arachnoid mater
Pia mater

12

Fingers and toes are referred to as what?

Phalanges

13

What is the fibrous outermost tunic seen anteriorily as the "white of the eye"?

Sclera

14

What is not a primary taste sensation?

Pungent

15

What is a fracture that is common in osteoporotic bones?

Compression Fracture

16

What is the part of the brain that deals with the ability to speak?

Broca's area

17

The Schwann cell forms a myelin sheath around what?

Axon

18

What muscle tissue has voluntary regulation of contraction?

Skeletal muscle only

19

What is the pigmented portion of the eye that has a rounded opening through which light passes?

Iris

20

Which nerve plexus serves the shoulder and arm?

Brachial

21

What are afferent nerves called?

Sensory nerves

22

What are motor nerves called?

Efferent nerves

23

An ear infection following an illness suck as a cold has passed from the throat through the auditory tube to what?

Middle ear

24

How many vertebrae are in the neck region?

Seven cervical

25

What is it called when the neuron processes that normally receive incoming stimuli?

Dendrites

26

What are the most important mineral stored in bones?

Calcium and phosporous

27

What is the lobe that contains the primary motor area that enables voluntary control of skeletal muscle movements?

Frontal lobe

28

When do the pupils dilate?

Low light

29

What is the gel-like substance that reinforces the eyeball and prevents it from collapsing inward?

Vitreous humor

30

What kind of tissue is the forerunner of long bones in the embryo?

Hyaline cartilage

31

Which of the nervous plexuses originates from ventral rami L1-L4?

Lumbar

32

"Pinkeye" is caused by bacterial or viral irritation of what?

The conjunctiva

33

Control of temperature, endocrine activity, metabolism, and thirst are functions associated with what?

Hypothalamus

34

The function of yellow marrow in adults is what?

To store adipose tissue

35

What effector is not directly controlled by the autonomic nervous system?

Skeletal muscle

36

The term central nervous system refers to what?

Brain and spinal cord

37

What type of membrane connects muscle to bone?

Tendon

38

The inability see distant object is termed "nearsighted", also called what?

Myopia

39

A nerve cell and all the muscle cells that it stimulates are referred to as what?

A motor unit

40

What is a characteristic of the parasympathetic nervous system?

Decreases heart rate

41

The axon terminals of a nerve cell and the sarcolemma of a skeletal muscle cell join where?

At the neuromuscular junction

42

What factors determine where bone matrix is to be remolded?

Stresses of gravity and muscle pull on the skeleton

43

Bone formation can be referred to as what?

Ossification

44

What bone fracture is broken into many segments?

Comminuted fracture

45

What is the transparent central anterior portion of sclera through which light enters the eye?

Cornea

46

Neurons in adults do not undergo what?

Mitosis

47

What is the gap between two communicating neurons?

Synaptic cleft

48

What is the ability to respond to a stimulus?

Irratibility

49

What does the axial skeleton contain?

Skull, ribs and sternum, and vertabrae

50

What is a fracture that is common in children, whose bones have relatively more collagen in their matrix and are more flexible than those of adults?

Greenstick fracture

51

What is a compound fracture?

When the broken bone is exposed to the outside

52

The vital centers for the control of visceral activities such as heart rate and breathing?

Medulla oblongata

53

What structure of the eye focuses light on the retina?

Lens

54

What prepares the body for the "fight-or-flight" response?

Sympathetic nervous system

55

What is not a function of the muscular system?

Hematopoiesis

56

Where are dynamic equilibrium receptors found?

Semicircular canals

57

White matters refers to the myelinated fibers in what?

CNS

58

What does the peripheral nervous system consist of?

The spinal and cranial nerves

59

Where are the equilibrium receptors located?

Inner ear

60

What is a bone-forming cell?

Osteoblasts

61

What is the order of the parts through which light passes at it enters the eye?

Cornea
Aqueous humor
Lens
Vitreous humor

62

Sound waves entering the external auditory canal hit the eardrum, also known as what?

Tympanic membrane

63

Sensorineural deafness occurs when there is damage or degeneration of receptor cells of what?

Spiral organ of Corti or cochlear ear

64

Which layer of the eye contains rods and cones?

Retina

65

What is the correct sequence of the stages of bone fracture healing?

Hematoma formation
Fibrocartilage callus formation
Bony callus formation
Bone remodeling

66

The sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems are subdivisions of what?

Autonomic nervous system

67

The congenital condition of crossed eyes is also known as what?

Strabismus

68

What is the substance that is released at axonal endings to propagate a nervous impulse?

A neurotransmitter

69

What is the correct sequence in a typical reflex arc?

Receptor
Afferent neuron
Integration center
Effector neuron
Effector

70

The kneecap is known as what?

Patella

71

The decreased lens elasticity associated with aging that makes it difficult to focus on near objects is known as what?

Presbyopia