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Flashcards in Exam V Deck (72)
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Anton van Leeuwenhoek

Skilled at grinding special lenses
Drew the things he viewed: called them animalcules
Did not know where they came from; thought spontaneous generation


Dr. Jenner

Small pox was a huge concern
He experimented with cow pox from milk maids and exposed boy to this and then exposed him to someone who had small pox – vaccination found!



Savor of the mothers – ran the maternity ward; strict rule of washing your hands but no one would listen to him at first
Those dissecting cadavers would deliver babies and expose the mothers to the diseases from these dead people


Oliver Holmes

well rounded and was able to prove contagions passing from person to person



people in battle were dying from medical treatments more than on the battle field; used phenol on instruments and air in surgery rooms to keep things clean; everyone didn’t believe him at first, but then they saw the changes in survival rates



wine makers wanted wine to be consistent, so he made the association between the microbes growing on the grapes and figured out by heating the wine it would be always good; same with milk, apple cider, etc.; well known person who could solve things

Parasitic disease: silkworms that were not infected and kept them isolated and clean, and as long as silkworms infected didn’t come into contact with healthy ones they could do their work

Spontaneous generation: proved that things didn’t spontaneously come to be; used S shaped flasks and when that was cooked nothing would grow, but if you tipped the flask to let fluid out and sat it back up = growth because contamination with dust and bacteria within the peripheral part of the S

Vaccination for chicken cholera: attenuation = injecting the weakened microbe into the chicken so body can make Ab to fight the disease

developed the Rabies vaccine; took the spinal column of infected rabbits and grinded it down



Proved one organism caused one disease; did this with anthrax and TB
Once he saw the pattern, he started checking the major diseases for which organism caused it; made so many connections = golden age of microbiology
Everything had a cause
Developed postulates that are still in use today
Won Nobel Prize
Present in every case of disease, absent in healthy organisms
Isolate and grow organism
Inoculate new host and get same disease
Re-isolate same organism from new host


Molecular Postulates

Gene or product in virulent strains but not avirulent ones
Disruption of gene disrupts virulence
Introduction of gene into avirulent strain induces virulence
Gene is expressed while in host
Antibodies to gene product are protective


Paul Ehrlich

Syphilis Treatment
Researcher in Koch’s lab
Tried 606 compounds
Arsenic derivative
Took to London, Fleming used


Alexander Fleming

Plates he left out – nothing growing around it
Found the mold penicillin that went into the agar dish
In 1940s - mass production of antibiotics leading to the Antibiotics Era
Won the Nobel Prize for Medicine or Physiology



1929 – published results
1932 – former student used filtrate on eyes of newborns with gonorrhea and/or staphylococcal infections – did not publish
1939 – Oxford group decided to study
No money in Britian
Rockefeller Foundation in America funded
during this time the war was going on and used the antibiotics for wounded soldiers (USA)
Resistance started in June 1941 - very rapid
Gram negative are more resistant than gram positive



Sulfonamides discovered– 1932
End of Golden Age of Microbiology
Thought that they had found the medicine for everything...but they were wrong


Emerging Infectious Disease Mechanisms

Environmental changes
Mutations to more virulent forms
New manifestations of known organisms
Antibiotic resistant strains


Legionnaire’s Disease
Legionella pneumophilia

Can get it in water sources- legionella; legionnaires convention with elderly veterans that drink and smoke – so people in that demographic are prone to having pneumonia; several had the illness and died;
Environmental changes – air conditioning, vegetable water spray, hospitals outbreaks
Adding air conditioning made this a more prominent disease


Lyme Disease

Borrelia burgdorferi
Found in Lyme, CN – build houses in deer’s domain; we moved into a territory that had this disease; same with probably ebola
Don’t infect deer, but infect mice and people
Hefty portion of ticks on peninsula carry lyme disease


Necrotizing fasciitis

Streptococcus pyogenes
Strep infection; can cause scarlet fever with prickly rash; back in the day this was a dangerous disease; now our immune systems can better fight this
Same toxin that causes prickly outbreak, it also causes necrotizing fasciitis: very fast – 24 hours
The microbe changed over time – deadly; we don’t know what caused the switch


Cat Scratch Disease

Bartonella henselae
cats scratch causing swelling in lymph nodes
Bacillary Angiomatosis – HIV patients get this; looks like blood vessel wart
The child must have a better immune system – can fight this; but HIV immune compromised patients cause the warts
Same organism with two different presentations


Vancomycin Resistant Entercocci

Big problem in hospitals
Antibiotic testing to measure resistance
Different resistance patterns
Vancomycin is the last resort antibiotic – some strains have become resistant to it = extremely bad; must be extremely cautious of not passing it to other people in the hospital
Must treat the person with multiple antibiotics and this is not as effective but only resort
Must clean EVERYTHING to keep spread under control

Mechanism: will not allow the binding of the D ala residues on the termini so cross linking cannot occur in peptidoglycan and this destroys the cell wall; resistant stains put D lactate instead of D ala


Acid Fast Stain

Mycobacterium sp.
Nocardia sp.
Waxes in cell wall
Does not gram stain because no cell wall and has wax like structure instead
Organism with heat fixation; use carbol fuchsin and phenol then rinsed with water, then acid, then rinsed; if redish color = positive
Not acid fast: takes blue counter stain


Fluorescent Staining

Use Ab (primary and secondary)
Very helpful, can see organism when low concentration is present, quick to get results (especially when you don’t have the time aka patient is dying)


Blood Agar

When an organism has hemolytic properties – key clue
Alpha – green color
Beta – yellow looking, but actually clear because killed all RBCs – extremely important if beta hemolysis
Gamma – no hemolysis and not used
Alpha and beta are what matters


Chocolate Agar

Fastidious organisms- picky about where they grow
Haemophilus influenzae
Neisseria gonorrhoeae


MacConkey Agar

Enterics grow in GI tract
ALL GRAM NEGATIVE grow, but the agar inhibits gram + organisms from growing
Lac + = E. coli – turns pink and is a lactose fermenter (easier to treat)
Lac - = P. aeruginosa – stays yellow/no color and is a non fermenter (hard to treat)


Buffered Charcoal Yeast



Sabouraud Dextrose

Candida albicans (fungus)


Lowenstein Jensen

Mycobacterium tuberculosis


Klebsiella pneumoniae

mucoidal growth - encapsulated



Pigmented Growth





Catalase Test

Differentiates Staphylococci (+) from Streptococci (-)
Detects presence of catalase enzyme – breaks down peroxide
+ = bubbling/fizzing
- = no reaction