What is communication?
the process of exchanging information and ideas from the brain of one person to another. Active process involves encoding, transmitting, and decoding intended messages
What is Language?
a social tool defined as a socially shared code or conventional system for representing concepts through use of arbitrary symbols and rules-governed combinations of those symbols.
What is speech?
a verbal means of communicating or conveying meaning, result of specific motor behaviors, requires precise neuromuscular coordination, consists of speech sound combinations, voice quality, intonation and rate
Why is it important to consider more than spoken language when considering communication?
- mechanisms signal attitude or emotion and include intonation, stress, rate of delivery and pause/hesitation
- gestures, body posture, facial expressions
- signal the status of communication based on intuitions about the acceptability of utterances
Bloom & Lahey model: Form, Content, Use
What is Language?
phonology, morphology, syntax (word order, word endings, speech)
Semantics (word meanings, the ways in which word meanings link together, sentencing)
Pragmatics (conversation, social rules, matching language to the situation)
What is Language? B&L
a social tool, defined as a socially shared code or conventional system for representing concepts through use of arbitrary symbols and rule-governed combinations of those symbols
Study of speech sounds and sound patterns used to create words. Determines which sounds may appear together, how they sound together and where they appear
the study of word structures- rules govern changes that modify meaning at word level. Dog to Dogs
“to join”- the arrangement of words to form meaningful sentences, word order and overall structure of sentences, a rule system governing the ordering of words in sentences
the study of the rules that govern the use of language in social situations aka a set of rules for language for language use (how to enter and exit a conversation; anticipation of listener needs)
the study of meaning in language, the rules govern meaning and the relationships between meaning units
Why do we need phonemes when we have the alphabet to describe speech?
They are important for meaning, when a speaker changes a phoneme in a word, the meaning changes.
What is an organic disorder?
caused by some defect in the neurophysiological mechanism of speech. Ex: cleft palate, aphasia
What is a functional disorder?
do not have an organic or neurologic cause; faulty learning, environment, habits, emotional problems, and other unknown causes. Ex: stutters, difficulty pronouncing speech sounds
How many people have comm disorders?
approximately 46 million people in the US
How do you take to someone with a comm disorder?
acknowledge your uncertainty/fear, focus on the person not your nerves
What is one thing you do when talking to someone with a comm disorder?
make eye contact, give them opportunity and time to talk
What is one thing you NEVER do when talking to someone with a comm disorder?
never fill in a word or assist an individual unless he or she asks for help
What is the medulla oblongata? Why important ?
a structure in the brainstem that fires impulses to the muscles of respiration; it is important bc it tells you to breathe
What are the major structures of speech?
the Respiratory, Phonatory, and Articulatory mechanisms
suspended by the hyoid bone at the top of the trachea. it’s a valve, closes the entry into trachea
large, butterfly shaped cartilages that form the frontal and side walls of the larynx
the top ring of the trachea which is linked with the thyroid cartilage and a pair of arytenoid cartilages
-provides attachments for muscles, ligaments, and cartilages involved in opening and closing the airway in speech production
two arytenoid cartilages
two small pyramid shaped cartilages which allow the vocal folds to be tensed, relaxed or approximated
prevents food from entering the trachea, directing it to the esophagus
space between the vocal folds when the folds are abducted
vocal folds that are drawn APART
vocal folds that are closed or nearly closed TOGETHER
the rate at which given folds vibrate, varies with age and gender. The elasticity, tension, and mass determine fundamental frequency
created by the frequency with which the vocal folds vibrate
determined by the degree of sub glottal air pressure
male vocal fold vibration: 125 Hz/sec
female vocal fold vibration: 225-250 Hz/sec
newborn cry 500
Qualities of Voice
Resonance, breathy voice, harshness, hoarseness, nasality
modification of a sound by structures through which the sound passes
when the vocal folds do not completely close; lack of closure causes air leakage during phonation and adds frictional noise to the voice
a vocal quality due mainly to the irregular vibration of vocal folds
results from excessive air leakage through the glottis and irregular vocal fold vibrations (when both breathiness and harshness is present)
refers to the added nasal resonance to voice, the quality added to the sound when the sound passes through the nose. It is a Resonance quality NOT a vocal quality because its not related to the behaviors of the vocal folds
starts above larynx and ends at base of tongue which adds resonance to the sounds the larynx produces
connected to laryngopharynx but oro extends up to the soft palate
-adds resonance to the sounds the larynx produces
oropharynx is connected and it ends where the two nasal cavities begin which adds noticeable resonance to only the nasal sounds (n,m,ng)
“soft palate”- a flexible muscular structure at the juncture of the oropharynx and nasopharynx located at the bak of the mouth-it hangs from the hard palate; it closes off the nasal cavity for the majority of speech sounds
the small, cone-shaped tip of the velum
the bony roof of the mouth and floor of the nose. the interaction of the hard palate and tongue is essential for the formation of certain speech sounds
the jaw ridge along the roof of the mouth between upper teeth and hard palate. the tongue apex continually touches the ridge to form speech sounds
the jaw which houses lower teeth and forms the floor of the mouth. major task is to chew food; it’s important to speech because it houses lower teeth, tongue, and lower lip
a large muscular structure that fills most of the oral cavity which helps produce speech sounds. it is a major articulator
obicularis oris- pucker lips for vowels and used for other speech sounds
what is the most important structure if the CNS for speech, language, and hearing?
Describe what you’re doing when giving an oral mech exam?
evaluates the structure and function of speech mechanism to assess whether the system is adequate for speech production
-looks at face, much, teeth, function of lips, tongue, jaw, velum, placement of tongue, hard and soft palates
What is Diadochokinesis
syllable rates are used to evaluate client’s ability to make rapidly alternating speech movements
How does one measure a babies perceptual abilities?
experiments such as a visual cliff measuring depth perception in babies
what can infants perceive?
3 days- recognizes mom’s voice
4 days- distinguish maternal language from others
one month- /p/ /b/ in syllables /ba/ and /pa/
3 mo- detect differences in place and manner of articulation and consonants
4.5 mo- prefer to hear sound of their name over syllables that sound similar to name
before 9 mo- learn characteristic phoneme sequences of their language
What is a phoneme?
a class/group of speech sounds, phonemes make a difference in meaning /p/ and /b/ are different phonemes because at word level when one changes to other meaning changes -pat and bat
What is an allophone?
variations of an individual phoneme; difference in phoneme /k/ for “key” and “cool”
How are speech sounds classified?
vowels and consonants
all involve vocal fold vibrations and a more open vocal tract during production
- differ from one another because of vocal tract shape
- classified according to tongue positions used in their productions
produced by restricting the oral cavity classified by place, manner, and voicing
Manner of articulation
describes the type or degree of constriction
Place of articulation
describes location of constriction
based on the presence (voiced sound) or the absence (voiceless sounds) of vocal fold vibration
produced when airflow is stopped then released
/p, b, t, d, k, g/
constricting the oral cavity then forcing air through it
/s, f, v, z, h/
a combination of stops and fricatives
“ch” and “j” sound
produced by gradually changing shape of articulation
/w/ and /j/
when the oral cavity is restricted the least
/r/ and /l/
nasal resonance is added by keeping the velopharyngeal port open
/n, m, ng/
natural occurrences that reflect the physical state of the infant (cry, burp, sneeze, cough- sometimes hear vowels)
purposeful for development (cooing, babbling)
Reflexive vocalization stage
birth-2mo. physical state
cooing and laughter
4-6months; range, pitch, sustained vowels
canonical babbling- no meaning yet
6months + =reduplicated bababa; varigated babibobu
(10 months+) no words, but overlaps with first words, string of patterns, not speech, at adult speed
refers to children who only have a problem producing a few phonemes, or whose speech errors are tied to the motor aspects of speech production
refers to a child with multiple speech sound errors involving the sound system of language
many ways or patterns of simplifying difficult sound productions by omissions or substitutions
Examples of phonological processes
final consonant deletion or initial, cluster reduction, fronting
How would you evaluate someone for an articulation or phonological disorder?
Screening to quickly identify who communicates within normal limits and those who may have a comm disorder
-Eval Procedures: case history, interview, observation, oral mech exam, hearing screening, administer standardized tests, obtain spontaneous connected speech sample, test of stimulability, analysis of errors and patterns of disarticulations, recommendations, report writing
substitution, omission, distortion, addition
Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research
American Journal of Speech Language Pathology
American Journal of Audiology
Language, Speech, and Hearing Sciences in the Schools