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Paediatric Neonatology > Examination > Flashcards

Flashcards in Examination Deck (10)
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1

What should you look for on head?

Circumference (50th centile =35cm)
Shape - odd shapes from difficult labour soon resolve
Fontanelles (tense if crying or RICP, sunken if dehydrated)

2

Eyes?

Red reflex (absent in cataract and retinoblastoma)
Corneal opacities
Conjunctivitis

3

Ears?
Nose?

Shape
Postion
Low set - below eyes

Tip of nose, when pressed shows jaundice in white babies
Breathing out of nose (close mouth) for choanal atresia
Otoacousitci screening test

4

Mouth?

Look inside
Insert finger - palate intact
Suck good
Baby's face look normal

5

Arms and hands?

Single palmar creases
Does baby look like parents
Waiter's tip sign os Erb's palsy - C5, C6 tunes
Number of fingers
Clinodactyly (5th finger curved towards the ring finger)

6

Thorax?

Watch respirations
Grunting
Intercostal recession
Palpate the precordium and apex beat
Listen to heart and lungs
Inspect the vertebral column for neural tube defects

7

Abdomen?

Feel liver
Inspect umbilicus
Lift skin to assess turgor
Inspect genitalia and anus
Patent orifices?

Passed urine and stool?
Displaced urinary meatus?
Testes descended

8

Legs?

Test for DDH - Barlows, Ortalani
Femoral pulse palpation - to exclude coarctation
Toes

9

Buttocks/sacrum

Anus?
Mongolian blue spots
Tufts of hair ± dimples suggest spina bifida occult
Pilonidal sinus

10

CNS?

Assess posture
Handle baby
Jittery (hypoxia, encephalopathy, hypoglycaemia, infection, hypocalcaemia)
Limbs normally move
Tone floppy or spastic
Responses?
Moro reflex - sitting baby at 45 supporting head
Momentarily remove support arms will abduct and hands open and then arms adduct

Stroke palm to elicit grasp reflex

Size