Flashcards in Exchanging of substances/Processes Deck (23):
What are the 3 ways of transferring substances
What does Osmosis transport and which way does it go?
It transports water only through a partially permeable membrane
from a high region of water to a region of low concentration of water
What does Diffusion transport and which way does it go?
Transports substances/particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
What does Active Transport transport which way does it go?
It moves substances such as minerals and vitamins from a low concentration to a high concentration (requires energy)
How can you make diffusion happen faster?
By having a larger difference in concentration
or having a higher temperature will have give particles more energy so they move around faster
or by having a larger surface area of the membrane
It is the spreading out of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration, through a cell membrane
What types of molecules can diffuse in and out of a cell?
small molecules like oxygen, glucose, amino acids and water, unlike larger particles such as starch and proteins
Osmosis is the movement of water molecules across a partially permeable membrane from a region of higher water concentration to a region of lower water concentration
if there is a strong sugar solution on one side of membrane and pure water on the other describe what will happen
The strong sugar solution will become more dilute and there will be less water molecules on the pure water side but no sugar would've moved into the pure water side as the sugar molecules are too big
What experiment can you do to show osmosis working?
cut up potato into identical cylinders, get some beakers with different sugar solution concentrations in them. One very concentrated sugar solution the other pure water. you may have others inbetween
measure the mass of the cylinders, then leave one cylinder in each beaker of solution for 24 hours
take them out dry with a paper towel and weigh again
the potato with pure water shouldve not changed mass by very much as the water levels inside potato and outside are very similar, while in the concentrated sugar solution water shouldve been drawn out of the potato so the potato shouldve lost mass
What is the definition for active transport?
the movement of ions or molecules across a cell membrane into a region of higher concentration, assisted by enzymes and requiring energy.
Where and when do we use active transport?
for example in plants there is often more water and mineral ions in the root hairs of the plant than in the soil so we need to use active transport to move those molecules across the cell membrane
we would use it in root hair cells in plants
and in the gut as there is less nutrients in the gut than in the blood. But diffusion is then used if this is not the case
Why are root hair cells adapted to absorbing nutrients and water
They are covered in many small hairs that help give it a larger surface area so the rate of exchange can happen faster
What small organs are in the lungs to help them with rapid gas exchange?
they have lots of small air sacs called alveoli to transfer oxygen into the blood stream and remove waste carbon dioxide
How are alveoli specialised for their job in the lungs?
The diffusion rate is maximised by the:
large surface area
moist lining for dissolving gases
very thin walls
a good blood supply
What is inside the small intestine that help speed up that rate of absorption for digested food?
How do Villi speed up the rate of absorption in the small intestine?
They increase the surface area so faster absorbtion into the blood
They have a thin layer (1 cell thick) so substances can travel between the blood and the intestine faster
They also have a very good blood supply so absorption happens faster
Why do cell use diffusion?
To get rid of waste products in the cell (CO2) and to take in substances they need (O2)
How do you work out surface area to volume ratio?
work out the volume of the animal or thing by representing as a block
add the area of the surface (top and bottom)
add the area of the surface on the sides (all 4 sides)
Then get the volume by multiplying length width and height
put the surface area on one side and volume on the other and try to cancel down if you can
What are exchange surfaces and why do we need them in multi-cellular organisms?
As multi-cellular organisms tend to have a smaller surface area to volume ratio. So not enough substances can diffuse from their outside surface to supply their entire volume. As a result we have exchange surfaces so we can have enough substances pass in and out
An exchange surface is apart of an organ or surface that has been adapted to allow maximum transport of substances
How are exchange surfaces adapted to maximise their effectiveness
They have thin membranes-substances only have to travel a short way to diffuse
They have large surface area-lots or substances can diffuse at once
They have rich blood supply (animals only)-so substances can get in and out of blood quickly
Gas exchange surfaces are also usually ventilated-so air moves in and out
How are leaves adapted to allow gases diffuse in and out?
CO2 diffuses into air spaces in the leaves
Under neath the leaf there is an exchange surface called stomata and the CO2 goes through the stomata
Oxygen and water vapour also diffuse out through the stomata
Size of the stomata is controlled by the guard cells, they close if the plant is losing too much water
The leaf is flat so the leaf increases in the area or the exchange surface.
The walls of the cells inside the leaf act as another exchange surface. The air spaces inside the leaf increase the area of this surface so there's more chance for CO2 to get into the cells
The water vapour evaporates from the cells inside the leaf. Then it escapes by diffusion there's a lot of it inside the leaf and less of it outside