Excreting wastes/hormone functions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Excreting wastes/hormone functions Deck (31):
1

What is Uremia?

syndrome of edema, high blood pressure, plae, confused, poor memory, involuntary muscle movements, breath smells like urine

2

what is normal blood creatinine?

<120 umol/L

3

What is normal blood urea?

<7 mmol/L

4

What is normal blood urate?

<450 umol/L

5

What is normal blood hemoglobin?

140-140 g/L

6

What is normal blood Potassium?

3.5-5

7

What is normal blood Bicarbonate?

25 mmol/L

8

What is normal blood calcium?

2.2 - 2.6 mol/L

9

What is normal blood PTH?

1-7 pmol/L

10

Describe Urea.

most abundant product of protein metabolism, directly related to protein intake, each urea has 2 nitrogens. CO2 + ammonia = urea. Ammonia is broken down in the liver and converted to urea and is excreted in the urine.

11

What is Phosphocreatine?

it is an energy store in muscle, it is metabolized to creatinine and excreted in the urine

12

What happens when there is an acculmulation of uric acid?

gout

13

What is uric acid?

nitrogenous metabolite of the purines guanine and adenine

14

What is the most likely reason humans have such a high GFR?

to accomodate for the filtration of the excretion of nitrogenous wastes

15

Where does renin come from?

synthesized and secreted by cells of the afferent arteriole

16

What does renin do?

increases blood pressure by systemic arteriolar vasococonstriction. increases sodium reabsorption by the kidney through aldoesterone. stimulates water retention through thirst and vasopressin, constricts efferent arteriole to increase glomerular capillary pressure and maintain GFR during hypotension

17

where is EPO produces?

glycorpotein synthesized by pericytes at the border of medulla and cortex where O2 levels are low

18

What does Vitamin D do?

increase the absorption of dietary calcium from the gut

19

What are the two hydroxylation steps of vitamin D

25-hydroxylation in liver
1-hydroxylation in kidney

20

What is the bodies response to low calcium (hypocalcemia)?

low calcium stimulate PTH secretion, and increases 1-hydroxylase in kidney, and increases 1.25 vit D that increase absorption of calcium in the gut

21

What are the clinical signs of uremia?

GFR <15 ml/min

22

Hypertension and Edema is cause by?

impaired sodium excretion by damaged kidney, due to reducde GFR, expanded extracellular fliud volume

23

How is hyperkalemia treated?

given intravenous insulin so that it brings potassium back into the cells

24

high PTH can

decalcify bones predisposing to bone fractures

25

plasma sodium concentration is determined by ______ balance not _______ balance

water, sodium

26

hypoatremia means an _____ in ICFV?

increase

27

Hyperatremia mean an ____ in ICFV?

decrease

28

ANgiotensin 2 _______ during hypotension and helps preserve GFR by ______ ______ rather than _______ arteriole.

increases, constricting efferent, afferent

29

Urine concentration in order for humans to have a good night sleep requires these two things:

thick ascending limb function and vasopressin action in the collecting duct

30

Potassium excretion requires both ___ and adequate ___ delivery to the cortical collecting duct

aldosterone, sodium

31

The proximal tubule is ____ and the collecting duct is _____

leaky, tight