Flashcards in Exercise Physiology Deck (32):
Which energy system uses stored phosphagens as the substrate?
ATP-PCr energy system
Which substrate does the ATP-PCr energy system use?
Which energy system uses glycogen and glucose, but not fats or proteins, as the substrate?
Glycolytic energy system
Which energy system uses glycogen, glucose, fats, and proteins as the substrate?
Aerobic Metabolic energy system
Which substrate does the Glycolytic energy system use?
Glycogen and Glucose, not fats or proteins
Which substrate does the Aerobic Metabolic energy system use?
Glycogen, Glucose, Fats, and Proteins
How is phosphate bond energy aquired?
ATP -> ADP + P + Energy
How does the PCr energy system create ATP?
PCr + ADP -> Cr + ATP
What is the Adenylate kinase reaction?
2ADP -> 1 ATP + 1 AMP
What is Biological Burning?
The removal of electrons from hydrogen (oxidation), passed to oxygen (reduction)
Catalysis by dehydrogenase enzymes
The transfer of electrons from NADH2 and FADH2 to Oxygen
What are the three primary antioxidant systems?
Superoxide Dismutase (SOD)
Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx)
What does Superoxide Dismutase do?
Dismutation of Superoxide (ROS) to H2O2 and oxygen
What does Catalase do?
Converts H2O2 to water and oxygen
What does GPx do?
Uses reduced glutathione to reduce H2O2 to oxidized glutathione and water
What is the enzymatic pathway for detoxification of ROS?
ROS + H2O -> (SOD) -> H2O2 + O2
H2O2 -> (Catalase & GPx) -> H20 + O2
How are free radicals produced?
2-5% of all oxygen consumed in the mitochondria forms free radicals
What are the three steps of energy transfer and exercise?
Lactic Acid System
Recovery from Exercise
What is the rate limiting step of glycolysis?
Conversion of F6P to F-1,6-BiP, catalyzed by PFK
Blood Lactate Threshold
Highest Oxygen Consumption with less than 1.0mM/L increase in Blood Lactate Accumulation
Onset Blood Lactate Accumulation
A systematic increase to 4.0mM/L
What is the role of Sodium Bicarbonate in athletic performance?
NaHCO3 acts as a buffer to counter acidity from Lactate accumulation
What is the recommended starting dose for Sodium Bicarbonate?
0.2-0.4g/kg of body weight
in flavored water or capsules
The point at which oxygen consumption plateaus and shows no further increase in workload
What is the Max VO2 in Women?
Runners - 65
Swimmers - 56
Sedentary - 39
What is the Max VO2 in Men
Runners - 80
Swimmers - 75
Sedentary - 44
The difference between the total oxygen consumed and the total oxygen that should have been consumed if a steady rate of aerobic metabolism has been reached at the start of the exercise
Oxygen Debt (EPOC)
Oxygen consumed during the recovery that exceeds the amount of oxygen that would be consumed at resting levels.
Excess Post-exercise Oxygen Consumption
What is the smallest contractile unit of the skeletal muscle?