Flashcards in ExPhys, Strength, and Conditioning Deck (205):
The amount of time that the athlete spends training per session
The number of times per week the athlete trains
The form of exercise performed
How hard the athlete is training
How is the Exercise Intensity determined?
Amount of weight lifted
Number of repetitions performed
Heart Rate... etc
A predefined and alternating spacing of exercise and rest periods
Which parts of interval training can be manipulated?
Rest periods (length, active v static)
Exercise Bouts (intensity, mode, duration, number of intervals)
Recovery period, measured in time or distance
The training period, measured by time or distance
Work/Relief Interval Ratio
The ratio of work interval to relief interval
The Work/Relief Interval for ATP/PC
The Work/Relief Interval is 1:3+
The Work/Relief Interval for LA
The Work/Relief Interval is 1:2
The Work/Relief Interval for O2
The Work/Relief Interval is 1:1
Why are agonist and antagonist outdated?
Each phase of a sport must be evaluated for muscle action, muscle roles can switch in different phases of general movements.
Muscles that specialize in joint control and concentricity
Where are stabilizer muscles located in relation to the joint?
Stabilizer muscles are located close to or deep within the joint.
In which direction do stabilizer muscle fibers run?
Stabilizer muscle fibers run horizontal to the plane of the joint.
When do stabilizer muscles contract?
Stabilizer muscles contract with most motions of the joint, especially if the joint motion is rapid.
Which muscles are considered to be more of a stabilizer?
Posterior Glute Medius
Deep Longus Capitus
What is stabilizer muscle integrity dependent on?
Stabilizer muscle integrity it dependent on muscle stiffness.
What is muscle stiffness dependent on?
Alpha and Gamma motor loops with the CNS.
What are the 2 components of muscle stiffness?
Reflex Mediated Stiffness
The viscoelastic properties of the muscle and tendon
What determines the viscoelastic properties of muscle?
Actin and Myosin
Reflex Mediated Stiffness
Stiffness dependent on the excitability of the motor neuron pool
What is the excitability of the motor neuron pool dependent on?
Muscle spindle action and the feed-forward system
What has poor muscle stiffness been associated with?
Poor muscle stiffness has been associated with poor joint stabilization.
What happens when the local stabilizer muscles are partially contracted?
Partial contraction of stabilization muscles increases proprioceptive acuity of the joint through enhanced sensory properties and improved stiffness.
When multiple stabilizer muscles activate to further stabilize a joint
Where agonist muscle activation relaxes the antagonist muscle
Does reciprocal inhibition play a role in co-contraction?
No, a special neural loop program bypasses reciprocal inhibition during co-contraction?
When is co-contraction most effective?
Co-contraction is most effective when the muscle is in mid-range/neutral position.
What may diminish "natural" co-contraction?
Unidirectional strength training
What are the benefits of oscillatory stabilization training?
Neutral joint range
Can be sport/motion specific
A working muscle needs _____ more blood than at rest
How do rhythmic activities improve the efficiency of blood flow?
The "milking action" of alternating contraction and relaxation assists with pushing blood back to the heart.
Is Blood Pressure higher when training UpEx or LowEx?
Training UpEx increases Blood Pressure, bigger concern for hypertension.
During the onset of activity, the increase in blood pressure is due to:
Inc demand for blood flow
Delay in vascular dilation response
Autonomic response from cognitive thoughts
O2 and Glucose delivery, exhaust of biproducts
Autonomic Response from Cognitive Thoughts
Feed Forward = thought of training increases muscle tone
Blood pressure decrease is due to:
Dilation of arterioles of the working muscles
Why is an active cool down necessary?
Dilation of the arterioles do not return to normal tone properly, vascular pooling occurs, muscle contraction results in "muscle pump" to assist with pushing blood back to the heart
At what percent of maximal contraction is the blood is a muscle occluded?
What happens during static or isometric contractions?
Stopped blood flow creates an anaerobic environment, further requiring muscles to use glycolysis, resulting in more pain producing by products.
Muscle Contraction Step 1
Ca lands on troponin, causes the tropomyosin to "tighten" within the helix/groove of the actin filament, uncovering an active actin site.
Muscle Contraction Step 2
Myosin head is attracted to the active actin site. Contact causes reflexive contraction until ATPase (cone - Mg) cleaves a phosphate off the ATP. Myosin is then released from the active actin site. Myosin head will grab next site if available.
Neurological stimulation ceased
Ca pumped back into T-tubule
Troponin has nothing to grab, tropomyosin regains original shape covering up the active actin site
2 Classes of Muscle Types
Type I, Slow Twitch, Red Fibers
Type II, Fast Twitch, White Fibers
Slow Twitch, Type I
Slower contraction rate
More, bigger mitochondria
Fast Twitch, Type II
Faster contraction rate
More Ca cycling
Types of Fast Twitch Fibers
Type IIa Fibers
Intermediate fiber that maintains ability for aerobic and anaerobic function
Type IIb Fibers
More purely anaerobic fibers
Type IIc and Type X
Recently typed, unsure of functionality
Gene that encodes the protein Alpha-Actinin-3, structural proteins in the Z line, related to the speed of contraction.
How long does it take to convert Muscle Fiber Typing?
About 6 weeks
The "Size Principle" of muscle recruitment
Smaller units fire first, followed by larger ones.
Type I, Type IIa, Type IIb
An alpha motor unit and all the muscle fibers it innervates
Small motor units act as stabilizers or mobilizers?
Large motor units act as stabilizers or mobilizers?
Which type of contractions are commonly a component of muscle injury?
Eccentric Contractions are typically associated with:
Loss of Protein
What may happen during the overstretch of the sarcomere during eccentric contraction?
cell membrane damage causing an unwanted influx of Ca and Na leading to inflammation and pain
Which form of condition was more efficient in establishing strength gains?
A potential cause of injury due to deconditioning
Glycolytic Fatigue Theory
Glycolysis causes build up of CrP, Pyruvate, and LA byproducts
LA creates acidic environment slowing the force relaxation rate
CrP binds with Ca, decreasing available Ca available for contraction
Oxygen Fatigue Theory
Decreased O2 to working muscles forces anaerobic metabolism, primarily in slow twitch fibers
CNS Fatigue Theory
Decreased neural input to the brain
Decreased stimulation to the alpha motor neurons
Sensation of pain
PNS Fatigue Theory
Decreased excitation coupling at the NMJ.
Slowed relaxation rate
At 10% drop in force contraction, velocity of contraction is affected
Fatigue is noticeable when power is affected
DOMS or DLR
Delayed Low-Frequency Recovery
Causes of DLR
High Ca levels
Microtrauma to muscle fibers
High free radical levels
Treatments for DLR
Tart Cherry Juice
NOT cold immersion
Muscle Coordination Principle
Interaction controls the level of muscle activity output, small to large pattern of recruitment for efficient muscle contraction
Add bulk to muscle
Assist with transmission of force
Plays a passive role in joint capsule and ligaments
Adaptation to increased loads, muscle vs connective tissue
Muscle - Days
CT - weeks-months
The regular, systematic, and goal oriented application of exercise, over a period of time, which results in physiological adaptations
A physiologic process must be challenged safely for the body to "learn" how to function more efficiently.
How is an Overload achieved?
Manipulating combinations of frequency, intensity, mode, and duration
Individual Differences Principle
Training benefits are optimized when programs are planned to meet the individuals needs and capacities of the participants.
The effects of a regular exercise program are transient and reversible. Detraining occurs rapidly, can be noticed after 1-2 weeks.
The SAID Principle
Specific Adaptations to Imposed Demands
Overload + Specificity + Individual Differences + Reversibiity
What is the risk of MI during vigorous physical exertion?
What are the most common injuries from weight training?
Low back, Shoulders, and Knees
How to reduce risk of MI?
The more you exercise each week, the lower the risk.
Do free weights produce more injuries than machines?
Conditioning for Power
The ability to accelerate and decelerate with strength and speed
Examples of power in an athletic setting
Clean and Jerk
How can you use bodyweight for power training?
3 Phases of Plyometrics
How to train Plyo for Power
Freq: 1-3 workouts a week
Volume: 80-100, 100-120, 120-140 foot contacts per workout
Recover: 5-10 seconds max jumps/reps, 2-3 min between sets
Intensity: Volume/Distance Traveled
Combination of strength training and speed/power training
The ability to move a limb or ones center of gravity as fast as physically/neurologically possible
Methods for Power Training
Machines - Russian Leaper
Methods for Speed Training
Free Weights, less resistance and faster pace
Components of speed training
Mechanical components of speed training
Level arm length
Neuro-regulatory components of speed training
Motor unit size
Neuro firing sensitivity
Neuro firing efficiency
Stride components of speed training
Frequency improved with overspeed training, plyo, assisted running, plyo
Length improved with joint AROM and PROM exercises ,m strength training, uphill running
How to improve running speed
Form drills to enhance functional end range
Form error corrections
Reinforced motor learning to create efficient movement
Types of running Form Drills
High Knees and Butt Kickets
Types of Form Errors
Head Sway,. Arm Swing, body Lean, Relaxed v Tense
Fartlek Training or Metabolic Training
A form of metabolic interval training for speed.
Near maximal sprints performed repeatedly followed by rest periods to a "recovery HR" ~65%
O2 1:1 or 1:5
The ability of a muscle group to execute repeated contractions over a period of time sufficient to cause muscular fatigue, or to maintain a specific percentage of the maximum voluntary contraction for a prolonged period of time
Methods of endurance training
Less resistance, high rep
How to train for endurance
Intensity: THR 70-90% max
220-age * 70-90%
Amount of time up front where muscles were not getting the O2 needed, and were functioning anaerobically.
The maximal force that can be generated by a specific muscle group
How to train for strength
Intensity and volume determined by >80% of 1RM
Method for training strength
High resistance with low reps
Grips - Pronate, Supinate, Alternate, False/Open
Prep multi-joint movement with single-joint movement on machines, circuit training is 40-60% of 1RM
Advantages or chains and bands
Allows for greater than 1RM to be applied through the stronger arc of the lift, as opposed to the "sticking" point
Strength conditioning via training antagonist muscle groups with little rest between sets
2 or more exercises for the same muscle groups with little rest
Weight training followed by plyometric like activities.
Limited to pre- and post-season, NOT in-season
Physiological change will only occur in the motor units that have been BOTH RECRUITED and EXHAUSTED during a set.
Corridor Theory if too little rest
Different motor units will be recruited, changing motor program
Corridor Theory if too much rest
Recovery of formerly exhausted units
When does muscle atrophy start with age?
1%/yr after 40
Potential causes for sarcopenia in aging populations?
Programmed cell death
Alterations in protein turnover
How long can muscle mass be produced while aging?
Through the 9th decade
Benefit of resistance training in the elderly
Increased mitochondrial capacity
Reduce markers of oxidative stress
Increase antioxidant enzyme activity
What is the mitochondrial reaction to aging?
Lower mitochondrial enzyme activity and protein synthesis
An increase in mitochondrial DNA deletions, reduction in DNA content
Increase in oxidative stress
Effects of Immobilization
Leads to atrophy of skeletal muscle, functional result of fiber atrophy, usually Type IIb fibers
Affects strength and power
The result of an extended imbalance of training and recovery.
Subjective of Initial Overtraining Stage
Fatigue and staleness
Subjective stages of Overtraining
Regular physical testing
Opinion of intensity of session
Sprinting test is most sensitive
Intensity for endurance training
Aerobic capacity improves if exercise is of sufficient intensity to increase HR to 70% of HRmax
Endurance training threshold method
Exercise at a HR of about 60% of the difference between resting and maximal HRs.
HRthreshold = 0.6(HRmax - HRrest) + HRrest
3 exercise systems to inc muscle strength
Same tension or strain
Involved working muscle groups shorten
Involved working muscle groups lengthen
Power training system
Strength training system
Endurance training system
36-48 hours recovery inbetween
Aerobic: To tolerance
Anaerobic: Dependent on energy stores
Writing a Program
1. Biological adaptation for improved performance in specific tasks
2. Define a goal
3. Pre-program fitness level statistics
4. Reasonable and achievable
5. Progressive improvements, variety of training, use of facilities, some competition, and periodic testing
6. Warm-ups before strenuous training is controversial
7. Cool-downs are necessary
The parts of a program
The cycling of intensity, volume, and specificity used to reach peak performance.
Why use periodization?
Reduces risk of overtraining
Macro - 1 year
Meso - 2+ per macro
Micro - 1 week
Which energy system uses stored phosphagens as the substrate?
ATP-PCr energy system
Which substrate does the ATP-PCr energy system use?
Which energy system uses glycogen and glucose, but not fats or proteins, as the substrate?
Glycolytic energy system
Which energy system uses glycogen, glucose, fats, and proteins as the substrate?
Aerobic Metabolic energy system
Which substrate does the Glycolytic energy system use?
Glycogen and Glucose, not fats or proteins
Which substrate does the Aerobic Metabolic energy system use?
Glycogen, Glucose, Fats, and Proteins
How is phosphate bond energy aquired?
ATP -> ADP + P + Energy
How does the PCr energy system create ATP?
PCr + ADP -> Cr + ATP
What is the Adenylate kinase reaction?
2ADP -> 1 ATP + 1 AMP
Definition: What is Biological Burning?
Definition: The removal of electrons from hydrogen (oxidation), passed to oxygen (reduction)
Definition: Electron Transport
Definition: Catalysis by dehydrogenase enzymesNAD, FAD
Definition: Oxidative Phosphorylation
Definition: The transfer of electrons from NADH2 and FADH2 to Oxygen
What are the three primary antioxidant systems?
Superoxide Dismutase (SOD)CatalaseGlutathione Peroxidase (GPx)
What does Superoxide Dismutase do?
Dismutation of Superoxide (ROS) to H2O2 and oxygen
What does Catalase do?
Converts H2O2 to water and oxygen
What does GPx do?
Uses reduced glutathione to reduce H2O2 to oxidized glutathione and water
What is the enzymatic pathway for detoxification of ROS?
ROS + H2O -> (SOD) -> H2O2 + O2 H2O2 -> (Catalase & GPx) -> H20 + O2
How are free radicals produced?
2-5% of all oxygen consumed in the mitochondria forms free radicals
What are the three steps of energy transfer and exercise?
GlycolysisLactic Acid SystemRecovery from Exercise
What is the rate limiting step of glycolysis?
Conversion of F6P to F-1,6-BiP, catalyzed by PFK
Definition: Blood Lactate Threshold
Definition: Highest Oxygen Consumption with less than 1.0mM/L increase in Blood Lactate Accumulation
Definition: Onset Blood Lactate Accumulation
Definition: A systematic increase to 4.0mM/L
What is the role of Sodium Bicarbonate in athletic performance?
NaHCO3 acts as a buffer to counter acidity from Lactate accumulation
What is the recommended starting dose for Sodium Bicarbonate?
0.2-0.4g/kg of body weight1-2hrs pre-exercisein flavored water or capsules
Definition:The point at which oxygen consumption plateaus and shows no further increase in workload
What is the Max VO2 in Women?
Runners - 65Swimmers - 56Sedentary - 39
What is the Max VO2 in Men
Runners - 80Swimmers - 75Sedentary - 44
Definition:The difference between the total oxygen consumed and the total oxygen that should have been consumed if a steady rate of aerobic metabolism has been reached at the start of the exercise
Definition:Oxygen Debt (EPOC)
Definition:Oxygen consumed during the recovery that exceeds the amount of oxygen that would be consumed at resting levels.
Definition:Excess Post-exercise Oxygen Consumption
What is the smallest contractile unit of the skeletal muscle?
Definition:A single alpha motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers that neuron activates
Cardiac Output (Q)
HR (Hear Rate) x SV (Stroke Volume)
The amount of blood pumped out of the left ventricle in each cardiac cycle
Which factors regulate Stroke Volume?
What are the potential limiting factors in the Cardiovascular system?
Training Sensitive Zone
220-age = MHR
70-90% of MHR for fitness
What are the limitations on HR max regarding age populations?
HRmax in younger adults is overestimated, while it is underestimated in older adults
Target HR = restingHR + Training Interval (MHR-restingHR)
What is the Karvonen Method useful in determining?
Target HR per Training Interval (%)
What are the cardiovascular adaptations to exercise?
Which part of the heart hypertrophies with aerobic training?
Left ventricular volume
Which part of the heart hypertrophies with strength training?
Interventricular wall thickness
A progressive increase in HR and decrease in SV that begins approximately 10 minutes into prolonged moderate intensity exercise. Greater with hotter temperatures.
Heart Rate Variability
The measurement of the interval between consecutive beats
How is HRV measured?
The interval between successive normal complexes (N-N)
Tidal Volume (TV)
Normal breathing volume exchange
Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV)
Maximum possible to the upper end of TV
Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV)
Maximum Voluntary Respiration to lower end of TV
Residual Volume (RV)
Maximum Voluntary Respiration to Minimum possible
Functional Residual Capacity
ERV + RV