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Flashcards in ExPhys, Strength, and Conditioning Deck (205):
1

Definition:
Aerobic

Definition:
With Oxygen

2

Definition:
Anaerobic

Definition:
Without Oxygen

3

Definition:
Exercise Duration

Definition:
The amount of time that the athlete spends training per session

4

Definition:
Exercise Frequency

Definition:
The number of times per week the athlete trains

5

Definition:
Exercise Mode

Definition:
The form of exercise performed

6

Definition:
Exercise Intensity

Definition:
How hard the athlete is training

7

How is the Exercise Intensity determined?

Amount of weight lifted
Number of repetitions performed
Heart Rate... etc

8

Definition:
Interval Training

A predefined and alternating spacing of exercise and rest periods

9

Which parts of interval training can be manipulated?

Rest periods (length, active v static)
Exercise Bouts (intensity, mode, duration, number of intervals)

10

Definition:
Relief Interval

Definition:
Recovery period, measured in time or distance

11

Definition:
Work Interval

Definition:
The training period, measured by time or distance

12

Definition:
Work/Relief Interval Ratio

Definition:
The ratio of work interval to relief interval

13

The Work/Relief Interval for ATP/PC

The Work/Relief Interval is 1:3+

14

The Work/Relief Interval for LA

The Work/Relief Interval is 1:2

15

The Work/Relief Interval for O2

The Work/Relief Interval is 1:1

16

Why are agonist and antagonist outdated?

Each phase of a sport must be evaluated for muscle action, muscle roles can switch in different phases of general movements.

17

Definition:
Stabilizer Muscles

Definition:
Muscles that specialize in joint control and concentricity

18

Where are stabilizer muscles located in relation to the joint?

Stabilizer muscles are located close to or deep within the joint.

19

In which direction do stabilizer muscle fibers run?

Stabilizer muscle fibers run horizontal to the plane of the joint.

20

When do stabilizer muscles contract?

Stabilizer muscles contract with most motions of the joint, especially if the joint motion is rapid.

21

Which muscles are considered to be more of a stabilizer?

Transverse Abdominus
Multifidus
Rotator Cuff
VMO
Posterior Glute Medius
Deep Longus Capitus
Longus Colli
Semispinalis Cervicus

22

What is stabilizer muscle integrity dependent on?

Stabilizer muscle integrity it dependent on muscle stiffness.

23

What is muscle stiffness dependent on?

Alpha and Gamma motor loops with the CNS.

24

What are the 2 components of muscle stiffness?

Intrinsic Stiffness
Reflex Mediated Stiffness

25

Definition:
Intrinsic Stiffness

Definition:
The viscoelastic properties of the muscle and tendon

26

What determines the viscoelastic properties of muscle?

Actin and Myosin

27

Definition:
Reflex Mediated Stiffness

Definition:
Stiffness dependent on the excitability of the motor neuron pool

28

What is the excitability of the motor neuron pool dependent on?

Muscle spindle action and the feed-forward system

29

What has poor muscle stiffness been associated with?

Poor muscle stiffness has been associated with poor joint stabilization.

30

What happens when the local stabilizer muscles are partially contracted?

Partial contraction of stabilization muscles increases proprioceptive acuity of the joint through enhanced sensory properties and improved stiffness.

31

Definition:
Co-contraction

Definition:
When multiple stabilizer muscles activate to further stabilize a joint

32

Definition:
Reciprocal Inhibition

Definition:
Where agonist muscle activation relaxes the antagonist muscle

33

Does reciprocal inhibition play a role in co-contraction?

No, a special neural loop program bypasses reciprocal inhibition during co-contraction?

34

When is co-contraction most effective?

Co-contraction is most effective when the muscle is in mid-range/neutral position.

35

What may diminish "natural" co-contraction?

Unidirectional strength training

36

What are the benefits of oscillatory stabilization training?

Neutral joint range
Co-contraction occurs
Multi-directional
Can be sport/motion specific

37

A working muscle needs _____ more blood than at rest

70x

38

How do rhythmic activities improve the efficiency of blood flow?

The "milking action" of alternating contraction and relaxation assists with pushing blood back to the heart.

39

Is Blood Pressure higher when training UpEx or LowEx?

Training UpEx increases Blood Pressure, bigger concern for hypertension.

40

During the onset of activity, the increase in blood pressure is due to:

Inc demand for blood flow
Delay in vascular dilation response
Autonomic response from cognitive thoughts

41

Definition:
Blood Flow

Definition:
O2 and Glucose delivery, exhaust of biproducts

42

Loop:
Autonomic Response from Cognitive Thoughts

Loop:
Feed Forward = thought of training increases muscle tone

43

Blood pressure decrease is due to:

Dilation of arterioles of the working muscles

44

Why is an active cool down necessary?

Dilation of the arterioles do not return to normal tone properly, vascular pooling occurs, muscle contraction results in "muscle pump" to assist with pushing blood back to the heart

45

At what percent of maximal contraction is the blood is a muscle occluded?

60%

46

What happens during static or isometric contractions?

Stopped blood flow creates an anaerobic environment, further requiring muscles to use glycolysis, resulting in more pain producing by products.

47

Muscle Contraction Step 1

Ca lands on troponin, causes the tropomyosin to "tighten" within the helix/groove of the actin filament, uncovering an active actin site.

48

Muscle Contraction Step 2

Myosin head is attracted to the active actin site. Contact causes reflexive contraction until ATPase (cone - Mg) cleaves a phosphate off the ATP. Myosin is then released from the active actin site. Myosin head will grab next site if available.

49

Muscle Relaxation

Neurological stimulation ceased
Ca pumped back into T-tubule
Troponin has nothing to grab, tropomyosin regains original shape covering up the active actin site

50

2 Classes of Muscle Types

Type I, Slow Twitch, Red Fibers
Type II, Fast Twitch, White Fibers

51

Definition:
Slow Twitch, Type I

Definition:
Fatigue resistant
Less ATPase
Slower contraction rate
More, bigger mitochondria

52

Definition:
Fast Twitch, Type II

Definition:
Fatiguability
More ATPase
Faster contraction rate
More Ca cycling

53

Types of Fast Twitch Fibers

Type IIa
Type IIb
Type IIc
Type X

54

Definition:
Type IIa Fibers

Intermediate fiber that maintains ability for aerobic and anaerobic function

55

Definition:
Type IIb Fibers

More purely anaerobic fibers

56

Definition:
Type IIc and Type X

Recently typed, unsure of functionality

57

Definition:
ACTN3

Gene that encodes the protein Alpha-Actinin-3, structural proteins in the Z line, related to the speed of contraction.

58

How long does it take to convert Muscle Fiber Typing?

About 6 weeks

59

Definition:
The "Size Principle" of muscle recruitment

Definition:
Smaller units fire first, followed by larger ones.
Type I, Type IIa, Type IIb

60

Definition:
Motor Unit

Definition:
An alpha motor unit and all the muscle fibers it innervates

61

Small motor units act as stabilizers or mobilizers?

Stabilizers

62

Large motor units act as stabilizers or mobilizers?

Mobilizers

63

Which type of contractions are commonly a component of muscle injury?

Eccentric contractions

64

Eccentric Contractions are typically associated with:

Pain
Muscle swelling
Hyper contracture
Loss of Protein

65

What may happen during the overstretch of the sarcomere during eccentric contraction?

cell membrane damage causing an unwanted influx of Ca and Na leading to inflammation and pain

66

Which form of condition was more efficient in establishing strength gains?

Eccentric

67

Definition:
Fatigue

Definition:
A potential cause of injury due to deconditioning

68

Glycolytic Fatigue Theory

Glycolysis causes build up of CrP, Pyruvate, and LA byproducts
LA creates acidic environment slowing the force relaxation rate
CrP binds with Ca, decreasing available Ca available for contraction

69

Oxygen Fatigue Theory

Decreased O2 to working muscles forces anaerobic metabolism, primarily in slow twitch fibers

70

CNS Fatigue Theory

Decreased neural input to the brain
Decreased stimulation to the alpha motor neurons
Sensation of pain

71

PNS Fatigue Theory

Decreased excitation coupling at the NMJ.
Slowed relaxation rate
At 10% drop in force contraction, velocity of contraction is affected
Fatigue is noticeable when power is affected

72

Definition:
DOMS or DLR

Definition:
Delayed Low-Frequency Recovery

73

Causes of DLR

Acidic environment
High Ca levels
Microtrauma to muscle fibers
High free radical levels

74

Treatments for DLR

Vitamin C
Vitamin E
Rehydration
Massage
Tart Cherry Juice
NOT cold immersion

75

Definition:
Muscle Coordination Principle

Definition:
Interaction controls the level of muscle activity output, small to large pattern of recruitment for efficient muscle contraction

76

Definition:
Connective Tissues

Add bulk to muscle
Assist with transmission of force
Plays a passive role in joint capsule and ligaments

77

Adaptation to increased loads, muscle vs connective tissue

Muscle - Days
CT - weeks-months

78

Definition:
Training

Definition:
The regular, systematic, and goal oriented application of exercise, over a period of time, which results in physiological adaptations

79

Definition:
Overload Principle

Definition:
A physiologic process must be challenged safely for the body to "learn" how to function more efficiently.

80

How is an Overload achieved?

Manipulating combinations of frequency, intensity, mode, and duration

81

Definition:
Individual Differences Principle

Definition:
Training benefits are optimized when programs are planned to meet the individuals needs and capacities of the participants.

82

Definition:
Reversibility Principle

Definition:
The effects of a regular exercise program are transient and reversible. Detraining occurs rapidly, can be noticed after 1-2 weeks.

83

Definition:
The SAID Principle

Definition:
Specific Adaptations to Imposed Demands
Overload + Specificity + Individual Differences + Reversibiity

84

What is the risk of MI during vigorous physical exertion?

2-6x higher

85

What are the most common injuries from weight training?

Low back, Shoulders, and Knees

86

How to reduce risk of MI?

The more you exercise each week, the lower the risk.

87

Do free weights produce more injuries than machines?

NO

88

Definition:
Conditioning for Power

Definition:
The ability to accelerate and decelerate with strength and speed

89

Examples of power in an athletic setting

Olympic Lifiting
Clean and Jerk
Volleyball
Boxing

90

How can you use bodyweight for power training?

Plyometrics

91

3 Phases of Plyometrics

Eccentric
Amortization
Concentric

92

How to train Plyo for Power

Freq: 1-3 workouts a week
Volume: 80-100, 100-120, 120-140 foot contacts per workout
Recover: 5-10 seconds max jumps/reps, 2-3 min between sets
Intensity: Volume/Distance Traveled

93

Definition:
Complex Training

Definition:
Combination of strength training and speed/power training

94

Definition:
Speed Training

Definition:
The ability to move a limb or ones center of gravity as fast as physically/neurologically possible

95

Methods for Power Training

Free Weights
Machines - Russian Leaper
Body Weight

96

Methods for Speed Training

Free Weights, less resistance and faster pace
Overspeed training
Body weight

97

Definition:
Overspeed training

Running downhill

98

Components of speed training

Genetics
Mechanical
Neuro-regulatory
Stride

99

Mechanical components of speed training

Fasciculus size
Tendon length
Level arm length

100

Neuro-regulatory components of speed training

Motor unit size
Neuro firing sensitivity
Neuro firing efficiency

101

Stride components of speed training

Frequency improved with overspeed training, plyo, assisted running, plyo
Length improved with joint AROM and PROM exercises ,m strength training, uphill running

102

How to improve running speed

Engram development
Form drills to enhance functional end range
Form error corrections

103

Definition:
Engram Development

Definition:
Reinforced motor learning to create efficient movement

104

Types of running Form Drills

High Knees and Butt Kickets

105

Types of Form Errors

Head Sway,. Arm Swing, body Lean, Relaxed v Tense

106

Definition:
Fartlek Training or Metabolic Training

Definition:
A form of metabolic interval training for speed.
Near maximal sprints performed repeatedly followed by rest periods to a "recovery HR" ~65%
ATP-PC 1:3
LA 1:2
O2 1:1 or 1:5

107

Definition:
Endurance Training

Definition:
The ability of a muscle group to execute repeated contractions over a period of time sufficient to cause muscular fatigue, or to maintain a specific percentage of the maximum voluntary contraction for a prolonged period of time

108

Methods of endurance training

Less resistance, high rep
Aerobic machines
Body weight

109

How to train for endurance

Freq: 3-5x/wk
Intensity: THR 70-90% max
20min minimum

110

Definition:
THR

220-age * 70-90%

111

Definition:
Oxygen Debt

Definition:
Amount of time up front where muscles were not getting the O2 needed, and were functioning anaerobically.

112

Definition:
Strength Training

Definition:
The maximal force that can be generated by a specific muscle group

113

How to train for strength

Intensity and volume determined by >80% of 1RM

114

Method for training strength

High resistance with low reps
Grips - Pronate, Supinate, Alternate, False/Open
Prep multi-joint movement with single-joint movement on machines, circuit training is 40-60% of 1RM

115

Advantages or chains and bands

Allows for greater than 1RM to be applied through the stronger arc of the lift, as opposed to the "sticking" point

116

Definition:
Super Setting

Definition:
Strength conditioning via training antagonist muscle groups with little rest between sets

117

Definition:
Compound Setting

Definition:
2 or more exercises for the same muscle groups with little rest

118

Definition:
Complex Training

Definition:
Weight training followed by plyometric like activities.
Limited to pre- and post-season, NOT in-season

119

Definition:
Corridor Theory

Definition:
Physiological change will only occur in the motor units that have been BOTH RECRUITED and EXHAUSTED during a set.

120

Corridor Theory if too little rest

Different motor units will be recruited, changing motor program

121

Corridor Theory if too much rest

Recovery of formerly exhausted units

122

When does muscle atrophy start with age?

1%/yr after 40

123

Potential causes for sarcopenia in aging populations?

Programmed cell death
Oxidative stress
Alterations in protein turnover
Inflammation
Hormonal Dysregulation
Disuse
Mitochondrial Dysfunction

124

How long can muscle mass be produced while aging?

Through the 9th decade

125

Benefit of resistance training in the elderly

Increased mitochondrial capacity
Reduce markers of oxidative stress
Increase antioxidant enzyme activity

126

What is the mitochondrial reaction to aging?

Lower mitochondrial enzyme activity and protein synthesis
An increase in mitochondrial DNA deletions, reduction in DNA content
Increase in oxidative stress

127

Effects of Immobilization

Leads to atrophy of skeletal muscle, functional result of fiber atrophy, usually Type IIb fibers
Affects strength and power

128

Definition:
Overtraining

Definition:
The result of an extended imbalance of training and recovery.

129

Subjective of Initial Overtraining Stage

Fatigue and staleness

130

Subjective stages of Overtraining

Decreased performance
Injury possibility

131

Overtraining Solutions

Regular physical testing
Questionnaires
Opinion of intensity of session
Sprinting test is most sensitive

132

Overtraining recovery

Takes weeks
Decrease training
Increase rest
Good nutrition
Hydrate
Quality sleep

133

Intensity for endurance training

Aerobic capacity improves if exercise is of sufficient intensity to increase HR to 70% of HRmax

134

Endurance training threshold method

Exercise at a HR of about 60% of the difference between resting and maximal HRs.

135

Definition:
Karvonen's Formula

Definition:
HRthreshold = 0.6(HRmax - HRrest) + HRrest

136

3 exercise systems to inc muscle strength

Isotonic
Isometric
Isokinetic

137

Definition:
Isotonic

Definition:
Same tension or strain

138

Definition:
Isometric

Definition:
Same distance

139

Definition:
Isokinetic

Definition:
Same speed

140

Definition:
Concentric contractions

Definition:
Involved working muscle groups shorten

141

Definition:
Eccentric contraction

Definition:
Involved working muscle groups lengthen

142

Power training system

Low reps
Low weight
High speed

143

Strength training system

Low reps
High weight
Slow-moderate speed

144

Endurance training system

High reps
Low weight
Slow-moderate speed

145

Endurance Frequency

3x/week
36-48 hours recovery inbetween

146

Endurance Duration

Aerobic: To tolerance
Anaerobic: Dependent on energy stores

147

Endurance Mode

Patient capability
Patient preference

148

Writing a Program

1. Biological adaptation for improved performance in specific tasks
2. Define a goal
3. Pre-program fitness level statistics
4. Reasonable and achievable
5. Progressive improvements, variety of training, use of facilities, some competition, and periodic testing
6. Warm-ups before strenuous training is controversial
7. Cool-downs are necessary

149

The parts of a program

Mode
Frequency
Duration
Intensity

150

Definition:
Periodization

Definition:
The cycling of intensity, volume, and specificity used to reach peak performance.

151

Why use periodization?

Reduces risk of overtraining

152

3 cycles

Macro - 1 year
Meso - 2+ per macro
Micro - 1 week

153

Meso cycles

Preparatory phase
Competition phase
Transition phase

154

Which energy system uses stored phosphagens as the substrate?

ATP-PCr energy system

155

Which substrate does the ATP-PCr energy system use?

Stored Phosphagens

156

Which energy system uses glycogen and glucose, but not fats or proteins, as the substrate?

Glycolytic energy system

157

Which energy system uses glycogen, glucose, fats, and proteins as the substrate?

Aerobic Metabolic energy system

158

Which substrate does the Glycolytic energy system use?

Glycogen and Glucose, not fats or proteins

159

Which substrate does the Aerobic Metabolic energy system use?

Glycogen, Glucose, Fats, and Proteins

160

How is phosphate bond energy aquired?

ATP -> ADP + P + Energy

161

How does the PCr energy system create ATP?

PCr + ADP -> Cr + ATP

162

What is the Adenylate kinase reaction?

2ADP -> 1 ATP + 1 AMP

163

Definition: What is Biological Burning?

Definition: The removal of electrons from hydrogen (oxidation), passed to oxygen (reduction)

164

Definition: Electron Transport

Definition: Catalysis by dehydrogenase enzymesNAD, FAD

165

Definition: Oxidative Phosphorylation

Definition: The transfer of electrons from NADH2 and FADH2 to Oxygen

166

What are the three primary antioxidant systems?

Superoxide Dismutase (SOD)CatalaseGlutathione Peroxidase (GPx)

167

What does Superoxide Dismutase do?

Dismutation of Superoxide (ROS) to H2O2 and oxygen

168

What does Catalase do?

Converts H2O2 to water and oxygen

169

What does GPx do?

Uses reduced glutathione to reduce H2O2 to oxidized glutathione and water

170

What is the enzymatic pathway for detoxification of ROS?

ROS + H2O -> (SOD) -> H2O2 + O2 H2O2 -> (Catalase & GPx) -> H20 + O2

171

How are free radicals produced?

2-5% of all oxygen consumed in the mitochondria forms free radicals

172

What are the three steps of energy transfer and exercise?

GlycolysisLactic Acid SystemRecovery from Exercise

173

What is the rate limiting step of glycolysis?

Conversion of F6P to F-1,6-BiP, catalyzed by PFK

174

Definition: Blood Lactate Threshold

Definition: Highest Oxygen Consumption with less than 1.0mM/L increase in Blood Lactate Accumulation

175

Definition: Onset Blood Lactate Accumulation

Definition: A systematic increase to 4.0mM/L

176

What is the role of Sodium Bicarbonate in athletic performance?

NaHCO3 acts as a buffer to counter acidity from Lactate accumulation

177

What is the recommended starting dose for Sodium Bicarbonate?

0.2-0.4g/kg of body weight1-2hrs pre-exercisein flavored water or capsules

178

Definition:Max VO2

Definition:The point at which oxygen consumption plateaus and shows no further increase in workload

179

What is the Max VO2 in Women?

Runners - 65Swimmers - 56Sedentary - 39

180

What is the Max VO2 in Men

Runners - 80Swimmers - 75Sedentary - 44

181

Definition:Oxygen Deficit

Definition:The difference between the total oxygen consumed and the total oxygen that should have been consumed if a steady rate of aerobic metabolism has been reached at the start of the exercise

182

Definition:Oxygen Debt (EPOC)

Definition:Oxygen consumed during the recovery that exceeds the amount of oxygen that would be consumed at resting levels.

183

Definition:EPOC

Definition:Excess Post-exercise Oxygen Consumption

184

What is the smallest contractile unit of the skeletal muscle?

The Sarcomere

185

Definition:Muscle Unit

Definition:A single alpha motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers that neuron activates

186

Definition:
Cardiac Output (Q)

Definition:
HR (Hear Rate) x SV (Stroke Volume)

187

Definition:
Stroke Volume

Definition:
The amount of blood pumped out of the left ventricle in each cardiac cycle

188

Which factors regulate Stroke Volume?

End-Diastolic Volume
Sympathetic Hormones

189

What are the potential limiting factors in the Cardiovascular system?

Respiration
Central Circulation
Peripheral Circulation
Muscle Metabolism

190

Definition:
Training Sensitive Zone

Definition:
220-age = MHR
70-90% of MHR for fitness

191

What are the limitations on HR max regarding age populations?

HRmax in younger adults is overestimated, while it is underestimated in older adults

192

Definition:
Karvonen Method

Definition:
Target HR = restingHR + Training Interval (MHR-restingHR)

193

What is the Karvonen Method useful in determining?

Target HR per Training Interval (%)

194

What are the cardiovascular adaptations to exercise?

RHR decreases
BP decreases

195

Which part of the heart hypertrophies with aerobic training?

Left ventricular volume

196

Which part of the heart hypertrophies with strength training?

Interventricular wall thickness

197

Definition:
Cardiovascular Drift

Definition:
A progressive increase in HR and decrease in SV that begins approximately 10 minutes into prolonged moderate intensity exercise. Greater with hotter temperatures.

198

Definition:
Heart Rate Variability

Definition:
The measurement of the interval between consecutive beats

199

How is HRV measured?

The interval between successive normal complexes (N-N)

200

Definition:
Tidal Volume (TV)

Definition:
Normal breathing volume exchange

201

Definition:
Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV)

Definition:
Maximum possible to the upper end of TV

202

Definition:
Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV)

Definition:
Maximum Voluntary Respiration to lower end of TV

203

Definition:
Residual Volume (RV)

Definition:
Maximum Voluntary Respiration to Minimum possible

204

Definition:
Functional Residual Capacity

Definition:
ERV + RV

205

Definition:
Forced Vital Capacity (FVC)

Definition: