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Flashcards in Extracting metals+making alloys Deck (62):
1

what is a metal ore

a rock that contain metal or metal compounds that are economically worth extracting

2

what do you have to do to the metal oxide compound

split up the metal and the oxygen

called reduction

3

aluminium and other reactive metals are extracted by

electrolysis

4

iron and less reactive metals are extracted by

reaction with carbon or carbon monoxide

5

the reactivity series



P- potassium
S- sodium
C- calcium
M- magnesium
A- aluminium
C- carbon
Z- zinc
I- iron
L- lead
C- copper
S- silver
G- gold

6

how is gold extracted

gold isn't extracted

it's so I reactive it is found in its native state and not as a compound

7

where are the transition metals in the periodic table- give examples

transition metals are in the middle of the periodic table - between groups 2 and 3

example: iron, titanium and copper

8

what are properties of transition metals

1. they are metals

2. good conductors of heat and electricity

3. they are malleable and ductile

9

what do malleable and ductile mean

they can be shaped or bent

10

what can transition metals be used for

construction metals

objects that need to let heat or electricity travel through them quickly

11

what is an iron ore called

haematite or galena

used to make iron or steel

12

how is iron extracted from an iron ore

in a huge container called a blast furnace

contain 96% iron. impurities are brittle so has limited uses

13

why is carbon used to displace iron from the iron oxide

because carbon is more reactive than iron

14

what is the word equation for using copper to split iron oxide (displacement)

iron oxide + carbon > iron + carbon dioxide

15

apart from carbon what else can reduce the iron oxide

carbon monoxide

because the blast furnace is so hot

16

what are the metals in metal compounds normally joined with

oxygen

17

what are coppers properties

soft
easily bent
good conductor
unreactive with water
not corrosive

18

what can copper be used for

plumbing
making pipes
making tanks

19

how do you extract copper from high grade ores

smelting

then purifying the copper with electrolysis

20

what is the metal ore for copper called

chalcocite

21

what is smelting

when you hear a metal ore in order to extract it's metal

22

what happens in electrolysis

electricity is passed through copper compound

copper ions go to negative electrode and are deposited as copper metal

23

negatives to smelting

uses lots of heat + electricity

costs lots of money

bad for the environment (acid rain)

24

what is phytomining

the process of extraction of metals from ores using plants

25

how does phytomining work

- plants absorbs copper

- plants are burnt

- plant ash contain copper compound

- adds sulphuric acid

- electrolysis separates copper sulphate solution

26

what is bioleaching

process of extracting metals from ores using micro organisms

27

how does bioleaching work

bacteria absorb copper compounds

Bacteria produce solutions called leachates- containing copper compounds

electrolysis

28

how does scrap iron extract copper

iron more reactive than copper- so it can displace copper

iron+ copper sulphate> iron sulphate + copper

29

what are coppers properties

soft
easily bent
good conductor
unreactive with water

30

what can copper be used for

plumbing
making pipes
making tanks

31

how do you extract copper from high grade ores

smelting

then purifying the copper with electrolysis

32

what is the metal ore for copper called

chalcocite

33

what is smelting

when you hear a metal ore in order to extract it's metal

34

what happens in electrolysis

electricity is passed through copper compound

copper ions go to negative electrode and are deposited as copper metal

35

negatives to smelting

uses lots of heat + electricity

costs lots of money

bad for the environment (acid rain)

36

what is phytomining

the process of extraction of metals from ores using plants

37

how does phytomining work

- plants absorbs copper

- plants are burnt

- plant ash contain copper compound

- adds sulphuric acid

- electrolysis separates copper sulphate solution

38

what is bioleaching

process of extracting metals from ores using micro organisms

39

how does bioleaching work

bacteria absorb copper compounds

Bacteria produce solutions called leachates- containing copper compounds

electrolysis

40

how does scrap iron extract copper

iron more reactive than copper- so it can displace copper

iron+ copper sulphate> iron sulphate + copper

41

properties of aluminium and titanium

low density (light)

resist corrosion

42

what can aluminium be used for

aircraft
trains
cooking foil

43

what can titanium be used for

hip joints
pipes

44

problems with extracting titanium and aluminium

process has many stages

lots of energy Is needed

expensive to produce

45

what is good about recycling

preserves limited resources

less energy is used

less damage to the environment

46

what's an alloy

mixture of two or more elements

- one of which is a metal

most everyday metals are alloys because pure copper, gold, iron and aluminium are too soft

47

what are the advantages of making alloys

- designed to have properties for specific uses

- low carbon steel is easily shaped

- high carbon steels are hard

- stainless steels are resistant to corrosion

48

how is iron converted into steel

by removing some of carbon and blowing oxygen into it

the oxygen reacts with carbon which reduces the amount of carbon in the mixture

49

why are they making new ways to extract copper

high grade copper ores are becoming scares

limit the environmental impact

50

how do u get the metal from an ore

they are minded and may be concentrated before metal is extracted and purified

51

what are the properties of transition metals

- good conductors of heat and electricity

- can be bent or hammered into shape

- useful for structural materials and making thinks that must allow heat/electricity to pass through easily

52

what are the advantages of exploiting metal ores

can make useful products

valuable revenue sometimes

creates jobs

wages go into economy

53

disadvantages of exploiting metal ores

- scares landscape and loss of habitats

- pollution of toxic or acidic materials

- can be costly

54

what's bad about recycling

- have to separate usebful scraps from rubbish

- metals must be collected transported and sorted which is costly

55

why a metals used as structural materials

copper is good electrical conductive for wiring

lead can be bent easily so can deal joints of roofs

steel is strong for scaffolding

aluminium aloud are corrosion resistant

56

why may are the drawbacks of using metal as structural materials

, iron and steel can rust, severely weeks structures

exploit ion of metal ores to extract metals causes pollution and issues up earths limited resources

metals are more expensive than other metals life concrete

57

explain low carbon steels, high carbon steels and stainless steel

low alloy- easily shaped contian 1%-5% of other metals

high alloy- contain higher percentage of other metals and are very hard

stainless steel- chromium and nickle and are resistant to corrosion

58

name some metals that are mixed with small amounts of similar metals to produce alloys

most metals in everyday use

copper, gold, iron and aluminium

because they are too soft

59

what are the uses of blast furnace iron

iron being used as cast iron because of its strength in compression

60

why does a metal ore need to be separated to form metal compound

the Rock doesn't contain 100% of metal compound so the Rock and other compounds need to be separated

61

what is brass an alloy of

copper and zinc

it doesn't corrode

62

what is the Aliminum ore

bauxite