Eyewitness Reliability Flashcards Preview

Intro to Forensic Psychology > Eyewitness Reliability > Flashcards

Flashcards in Eyewitness Reliability Deck (32):
1

Leading contributing cause for wrongful convictions?

77% are eyewitness

2

When does acquisition or encoding take place in an investigation for an eyewitness?

during the crime

3

When does storage take place

up until testifying

4

When does retrieval occur?

Recall; during police interview, recognition; lineup

5

Acquisition

the process by which people notice and pay attention to information in the environment

6

Encoding

driven by attention

7

own race bias

people are more likely to recognise people from their own race

8

storage

the process by which people store in memory information that they have acquired from the environment

9

Retention interval

- ebbinghaus forgetting curve, immediately after receiving info memory degrades quickly and then levels off. (30% in first day)

10

Misinformation Effect

The tendency for false post-event information to become integrated into people's memory of an event

11

Loftus et al. 1987 classic misinformation study

- post - slide presentation interview; plant misinformation about event

12

Sources of contamination

Police - leading questions, suggestive questions. Other witnesses- discussing the events etc

13

Ways to avoid misinformation?

- Isolate witnesses as soon as possible
- Ask open-ended, non-leading questions

14

Factors that influence memory

estimator variables, system variables

15

Estimator variables

Factors that the criminal justice system has no control over

16

System variables

can be controlled by criminal justice system

17

Estimator variables (examples)

- presence of weapon
-length of exposure
-viewing conditions
-race of victim & perp
-Age of witness
-Presence of disguise/ Change of appearance

18

System variables (examples)

- Who administers the lineup
- lineup presentation
- selection of foils
- instructions to witness
- feedback to witness

19

Target

perp

20

Single-blind administration of line-up

-police officer involved in case
- may influence eyewitness
-observers rated administrator as more biased (Greathouse & Kovera, 2009)

21

Double-blind Administration of line-up

-Independent investigator or computer
-Cannot influence eyewitness
-inform eyewitness to prevent search for cues

22

Simultaneous lineup false ID rate (Steblay, Dysart & Wells, 2011)

28 %

23

Simultaneous correct ID rate (Steblay, Dysart & Wells, 2011)

52 %

24

Sequential false ID rate (Steblay, Dysart & Wells, 2011)

15 %

25

Sequential correct ID rate (Steblay, Dysart & Wells, 2011)

44 %

26

For a fair lineup, what is required?

Foils should resemble/match description of suspect

27

How does confidence impact jurors belief in witness?

Jurors are more likely to believe witnesses who are 100% confident than witnesses who are 80 % confident

28

Neil vs Biggers (1972) case changed eye-witness cases

Even if suggestive procedures used as long as criteria fit: - opportunity to view - attention paid by eyewitnesses - Accuracy of description - Certainty - Time between event & ID

29

NJ vs Henderson (2011) shift in procedures

- Special Master Review of 2,000 pages of scientific findings - rewrote judicial instructions to address system variables - system variables looked at also :)

30

Oregon vs Lawson (2013)

- Revised Judgement Process - Onus shifted from defense to prosecutor to demonstrate not a suggestive procedur - Focus on system variables

31

Common eye-witness safe guards

- Suppression hearings (evidence thrown out of court) - Judicial Instructions - Expert Testimony (expensive)

32

Novel eye-witness safe guards

- Juror training - Presentation of ID video