Factors Modifying Drug Disposition And Response Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Factors Modifying Drug Disposition And Response Deck (50)
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1

What are some ways species differences can affect drugs.

Anatomical- ruminant or non rum.
Physiological
-carnivores acidic urine
-herbivores alkaline urine
Biochemical
-drug metabolizing enzymes
-- cats are deficient in glucoronyl transferase.

2

What causes cardiovascular collapse in boxers?

Phenothiazines
(Acepromazine)

3

Collies are sensitive to _______, which can cause CNS depression, ataxia, tremor, salvation and coma.

Ivermectin

4

This drug, when given to Australian terriers caused no sedation/analgesia but does cause salivation, tachycardia, muscle tremors and convulsions.

Droperidol/fentanyl

5

Genetic factors can cause unwanted drug effects.
ABCB1 (formerly MDR1) gene deletion affects whom and how?

Collies- this gene normal encodes p-glycoprotein.
Mutation or deletion means less p-go produced
35%homozygous in North America

6

Genetic factors can cause unwanted drug effects.
C-15A SNP, what be that?

Mu-opioid receptor gene
(OPRM1)- dysphoria (freaking out)

7

How does gender/gestation affect drug stuff.

Women are complicated, and then they get pregnant and men should run and buy chocolate. But really, know what you can't give during gestation.

8

Body condition score

When in doubt lower the dose, large amounts of fat can bind lipophilic drugs.

9

Young animal drug effects

-decreased ME
-inc. BBB permeability
-dec. Plasma protein binding
-inc. Total body water
- susceptible to adverse effects.

10

Tetracyclines young animals and go!

Yellowing of teeth

11

Fluroquinolones young animals!

Cartilage damage

12

Glucocorticoids young animals

Premature closure of epiphysis

13

When does drug clearance reach adult capacity?

Not typically until 12 weeks of age.

14

Factors related to old animals.

Dec. M&E
Dec. CO & hepatic blood flow
Chronic diseases
Changes in body composition
-dec. Lean body mass
-inc. Body fat
-dec. Total body water.
-dec plasma proteins

15

Liver disease drug effects

Decreased drug metabolism

16

Renal disease causes

Decreased drug excretion

17

Congestive heart failure causes

Decreases drug distribution and excretion

18

Calm animals need what kind of dosage on CNS depressants.

Lower doses than aggressive or excited animals

19

What is idiosyncratic drug reaction?

Unpredictable, abnormal, non dose dependent, requires drug withdrawal, caused by reactive metabolites and they can occur on first exposure!

Liver damage by griseofulvin in some cats

20

What are the three broad factors that relate to veterinary pharmacology

Factors related to
The animal
The drug
The environment

21

Hypersensitivity to drugs

Prior exposure is necessary
Cross sensitivity
Type 1 hypersensitivity( allergy and or anaphylaxis)

22

What drugs are antigens?

Blood, plasma, protein hormones.

23

What drugs are haptens

Penicillins sulfonamides aspirin
Drugs that are too small to directly bind to the antibody.

24

What is tolerance

Gradual decrease in responsiveness to chronic drug administration.

25

What is tachyphylaxis

Acute acquired tolerance
(Ephedrine)

26

What are some pharmacokinetic mechanisms

Altered absorption of the drug
Enzyme induction (increased metabolism of the drug)
Increased active excretion of the drug

27

What are some pharmacodynamic mechanisms?

Desensitization (receptor down-regulation)
Loss of receptor
Exhaustion of mediator

28

Route of administration affects the drug. How?

IV- fastest onset short duration
PO- slow onset longer duration

Lidocaine- IV- antiarrhythmic
Locally- local anesthetic

29

Food and drugs

Absorption rate is typically slower with food/fluid

30

CNS stimulants, when do you give them?

More effective during the day
Circadian effects