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Flashcards in Fallacies Deck (14):
1

9 classical ad fallacies

Ad misericordiam
Ad hominem
Ad baculum
Ad populum
Ad verecundiam
Ad ignoratiam
Post hoc ergo propter hoc
Ad consequentiam
Petitio principii

2

Ad misericordiam

appeal to pity, tries to get an audience to accept a conclusion by making them feel negative emotions

3

Ad hominem

1: tu quoque - "you also"; attacks hypocrisy
2: circumstantial - attack on the bias of a person
3: abusive - attack on character, morality, or appearance

4

Ad baculum

an appeal to force or threat

5

Ad populum

appeal to the majority or the elite or the bandwagon appeal

6

Ad verecundiam

appeal to false authority, someone who has no real expertise on the subject

7

Ad ignoratiam

appeal to ignorance

8

Post hoc ergo propter hoc

"after this therefore because of this"; claiming that correlation is the same as causation

9

Ad consequentiam

appeal to consequences, "red herring" fallacy

10

Petitio Principii

circular reasoning; using a premise to prove oneself

11

Dialectical vs. Rhetorical view of fallacies

Dialectical goal: find a reasonable solution --> fallacies would hinder that process
Rhetorical Goal: win the argument --> fallacies would damage the integrity of the argument

12

Old definition of fallacies

an argument that seems valid but is not

13

New definition of fallacies

an argument that breaks any of Van Eemeren's 10 (or 15) pragma-dialectical rules of argumentation

14

Why shouldn't we use fallacies?

1. prevents you from reaching a reasonable conclusion
2. makes you less trustworthy
3. can undermine quality, quantity, replicability, or durability of an argument (graph)