Flashcards in Farm Animal Anaemia Deck (23)
What are the clinical signs of anaemia in cattle?
Pallor, lack of exercise tolerance, weakness, haemic murmur, red urine, jaundice, dependent oedema, black faeces and swollen udder
What should always be checked in suspected anaemia cases?
MM of eyes, mouth, nose and vulva but remember normally pale in comparison to MM of other animals
What signs are seen on bloods of a farm animal with anaemia?
Low PCV and haemoglobin, immature erythrocytes, evidence of regeneration and jaundice
What are the normal levels of PCV and Hb in cattle, sheep and swine?
Cattle PCV = 24-46%, Hb = 8-15g/dl
Sheep PCV = 27-45%, Hb = 9-15g/dl
Swine PCV = 22-38%, Hb = 8-12g/dl
What are the characteristics of haemorrhagic anaemia?
Blood loss, regenerative anaemia
What can cause haemorrhagic anaemia?
Caudal vena caval syndrome, enzootic haematuria, ruptured uterine artery, ruptured aorta, haemonchosis, fasciolosis, lice, mites and ticks, abomasal ulcer
What are the signs of enzootic haematuria?
Haematuria with blood clots, frequent urination, thickened bladder +/- palpated on rectal, chronic progressive anaemia signs, internal bleedings
What causes enzootic haematuria?
Bracken fern toxicity
What causes abomasal ulcers?
Sand, DA or stress
How are abomasal ulcers diagnosed?
Occult blood in faeces/black stinking dung, free air in abdomen and abdominal pain
What are the characteristics of haemolytic anaemia?
Erythrocyte destruction and regenerative anaemia
What are the causes of haemolytic anaemia?
Leptospirosis, post-parturient haemoglobulinuria, protozoa (Babesia/Eperythmozoan), chronic copper poisoning, cold water ingestion, Brassica spp poisoning, drug induced, blood transfusion, autoimmune haemolytic anaemia
Which species and breeds are most/least susceptible to copper poisoning?
Sheep are more susceptible than cattle
Texels and Suffolk mos susceptible, Scottish Blackface and Merinos least susceptible
What is the mechanism of pathology of chronic copper poisoning?
Stored and accumulates in liver causing centrilobar necrosis if >750ppm resulting in sudden release of copper from liver into blood leading to an acute fatal syndrome
What are the risk factors for chronic copper poisoning?
Fed with concentrate feeds >4ppm needed for normal health and >12ppm may be dangerous and many commercial feeds exceed this
What are the signs of chronic copper poisoning?
Jaundice, pallor, haemoglobinuria, depression, death 24-48 hours post haemolytic event
What is seen on bloods of animal with chronic copper poisoning?
Elevated blood and liver copper, increased plasma AST
What is found on necropsy of animal with chronic copper poisoning?
Swollen yellow liver, swollen 'gunmetal' kidneys, jaundice
How is chronic copper toxicity diagnosed?
Haemoglobinuria, jaundice and anaemia
What is the treatment for chronic copper toxicity?
Ammonium tetrathionolybalate at 2.7mg/kg with 2-3 day interval and 3-6 treatments
Ammonium molybdate 100mg + sodium sulphate 1g oral daily
Sodium calcium edetate 70mg/kg IV for 2 days
What are the causes of depressed/inadequate erythrocyte production?
Cobalt/copper deficiency, iron deficiency, acute bracken poisoning, fasciolosis, lymphosarcoma, chronic renal disease, anaemia of inflammatory disease, radiation damage
What are the signs of anaemia of inflammatory disease?
Alterations in iron matabolism, depressed bone marrow response, shorter lifespan of erythrocytes