Farm Animal Anaemia Flashcards Preview

Lymphoreticular and haematopoetic > Farm Animal Anaemia > Flashcards

Flashcards in Farm Animal Anaemia Deck (23)
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1

What are the clinical signs of anaemia in cattle?

Pallor, lack of exercise tolerance, weakness, haemic murmur, red urine, jaundice, dependent oedema, black faeces and swollen udder

2

What should always be checked in suspected anaemia cases?

MM of eyes, mouth, nose and vulva but remember normally pale in comparison to MM of other animals

3

What signs are seen on bloods of a farm animal with anaemia?

Low PCV and haemoglobin, immature erythrocytes, evidence of regeneration and jaundice

4

What are the normal levels of PCV and Hb in cattle, sheep and swine?

Cattle PCV = 24-46%, Hb = 8-15g/dl
Sheep PCV = 27-45%, Hb = 9-15g/dl
Swine PCV = 22-38%, Hb = 8-12g/dl

5

What are the characteristics of haemorrhagic anaemia?

Blood loss, regenerative anaemia

6

What can cause haemorrhagic anaemia?

Caudal vena caval syndrome, enzootic haematuria, ruptured uterine artery, ruptured aorta, haemonchosis, fasciolosis, lice, mites and ticks, abomasal ulcer

7

What are the signs of enzootic haematuria?

Haematuria with blood clots, frequent urination, thickened bladder +/- palpated on rectal, chronic progressive anaemia signs, internal bleedings

8

What causes enzootic haematuria?

Bracken fern toxicity

9

What causes abomasal ulcers?

Sand, DA or stress

10

How are abomasal ulcers diagnosed?

Occult blood in faeces/black stinking dung, free air in abdomen and abdominal pain

11

What are the characteristics of haemolytic anaemia?

Erythrocyte destruction and regenerative anaemia

12

What are the causes of haemolytic anaemia?

Leptospirosis, post-parturient haemoglobulinuria, protozoa (Babesia/Eperythmozoan), chronic copper poisoning, cold water ingestion, Brassica spp poisoning, drug induced, blood transfusion, autoimmune haemolytic anaemia

13

Which species and breeds are most/least susceptible to copper poisoning?

Sheep are more susceptible than cattle
Texels and Suffolk mos susceptible, Scottish Blackface and Merinos least susceptible

14

What is the mechanism of pathology of chronic copper poisoning?

Stored and accumulates in liver causing centrilobar necrosis if >750ppm resulting in sudden release of copper from liver into blood leading to an acute fatal syndrome

15

What are the risk factors for chronic copper poisoning?

Fed with concentrate feeds >4ppm needed for normal health and >12ppm may be dangerous and many commercial feeds exceed this

16

What are the signs of chronic copper poisoning?

Jaundice, pallor, haemoglobinuria, depression, death 24-48 hours post haemolytic event

17

What is seen on bloods of animal with chronic copper poisoning?

Elevated blood and liver copper, increased plasma AST

18

What is found on necropsy of animal with chronic copper poisoning?

Swollen yellow liver, swollen 'gunmetal' kidneys, jaundice

19

How is chronic copper toxicity diagnosed?

Haemoglobinuria, jaundice and anaemia

20

What is the treatment for chronic copper toxicity?

Ammonium tetrathionolybalate at 2.7mg/kg with 2-3 day interval and 3-6 treatments
Ammonium molybdate 100mg + sodium sulphate 1g oral daily
Sodium calcium edetate 70mg/kg IV for 2 days
Euthanasia

21

What are the causes of depressed/inadequate erythrocyte production?

Cobalt/copper deficiency, iron deficiency, acute bracken poisoning, fasciolosis, lymphosarcoma, chronic renal disease, anaemia of inflammatory disease, radiation damage

22

What are the signs of anaemia of inflammatory disease?

Alterations in iron matabolism, depressed bone marrow response, shorter lifespan of erythrocytes

23

How is anaemia treated in farm animals?

Blood transfusion from dry cow, need 5L
Haematinics = Fe, Cu, Vit B12, high protein, fresh foods