Farm Animal Anaemia Flashcards Preview

Lymphoreticular and haematopoetic > Farm Animal Anaemia > Flashcards

Flashcards in Farm Animal Anaemia Deck (23)
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What are the clinical signs of anaemia in cattle?

Pallor, lack of exercise tolerance, weakness, haemic murmur, red urine, jaundice, dependent oedema, black faeces and swollen udder


What should always be checked in suspected anaemia cases?

MM of eyes, mouth, nose and vulva but remember normally pale in comparison to MM of other animals


What signs are seen on bloods of a farm animal with anaemia?

Low PCV and haemoglobin, immature erythrocytes, evidence of regeneration and jaundice


What are the normal levels of PCV and Hb in cattle, sheep and swine?

Cattle PCV = 24-46%, Hb = 8-15g/dl
Sheep PCV = 27-45%, Hb = 9-15g/dl
Swine PCV = 22-38%, Hb = 8-12g/dl


What are the characteristics of haemorrhagic anaemia?

Blood loss, regenerative anaemia


What can cause haemorrhagic anaemia?

Caudal vena caval syndrome, enzootic haematuria, ruptured uterine artery, ruptured aorta, haemonchosis, fasciolosis, lice, mites and ticks, abomasal ulcer


What are the signs of enzootic haematuria?

Haematuria with blood clots, frequent urination, thickened bladder +/- palpated on rectal, chronic progressive anaemia signs, internal bleedings


What causes enzootic haematuria?

Bracken fern toxicity


What causes abomasal ulcers?

Sand, DA or stress


How are abomasal ulcers diagnosed?

Occult blood in faeces/black stinking dung, free air in abdomen and abdominal pain


What are the characteristics of haemolytic anaemia?

Erythrocyte destruction and regenerative anaemia


What are the causes of haemolytic anaemia?

Leptospirosis, post-parturient haemoglobulinuria, protozoa (Babesia/Eperythmozoan), chronic copper poisoning, cold water ingestion, Brassica spp poisoning, drug induced, blood transfusion, autoimmune haemolytic anaemia


Which species and breeds are most/least susceptible to copper poisoning?

Sheep are more susceptible than cattle
Texels and Suffolk mos susceptible, Scottish Blackface and Merinos least susceptible


What is the mechanism of pathology of chronic copper poisoning?

Stored and accumulates in liver causing centrilobar necrosis if >750ppm resulting in sudden release of copper from liver into blood leading to an acute fatal syndrome


What are the risk factors for chronic copper poisoning?

Fed with concentrate feeds >4ppm needed for normal health and >12ppm may be dangerous and many commercial feeds exceed this


What are the signs of chronic copper poisoning?

Jaundice, pallor, haemoglobinuria, depression, death 24-48 hours post haemolytic event


What is seen on bloods of animal with chronic copper poisoning?

Elevated blood and liver copper, increased plasma AST


What is found on necropsy of animal with chronic copper poisoning?

Swollen yellow liver, swollen 'gunmetal' kidneys, jaundice


How is chronic copper toxicity diagnosed?

Haemoglobinuria, jaundice and anaemia


What is the treatment for chronic copper toxicity?

Ammonium tetrathionolybalate at 2.7mg/kg with 2-3 day interval and 3-6 treatments
Ammonium molybdate 100mg + sodium sulphate 1g oral daily
Sodium calcium edetate 70mg/kg IV for 2 days


What are the causes of depressed/inadequate erythrocyte production?

Cobalt/copper deficiency, iron deficiency, acute bracken poisoning, fasciolosis, lymphosarcoma, chronic renal disease, anaemia of inflammatory disease, radiation damage


What are the signs of anaemia of inflammatory disease?

Alterations in iron matabolism, depressed bone marrow response, shorter lifespan of erythrocytes


How is anaemia treated in farm animals?

Blood transfusion from dry cow, need 5L
Haematinics = Fe, Cu, Vit B12, high protein, fresh foods