Flashcards in Colostrum and Failure of Passive Transfer in Farm Animals Deck (12)
When does transfer of immunoglobulins (Ig) to the udder occur?
4-6 weeks before calving and IgG is actively transferred into colostrum
How is IgG transferred to calf?
Colostrum is ingested by the calf and Ig is absorbed by the epithelial cells of the small intestine and passes into peripheral circulation via lymphatics
How is systemic protection of the calf achieved?
IgG and IgM
How is local protection of the intestine achieved?
Re-excretion of IgG into gut lumen and passage of IgA in colostrum (and milk) through gut lumen
What level of IgG is need for protection?
5g/l of IgG in plasma and for no disease to occur need 10g/l of IgG
What factors influence uptake of Ig?
Rapid decrease with each milking
Milk yield high = dilution of Ig in milk as only 29% Holsteins have 100g of Ig in 2l of milk
Dairy vs beef cattle - beef calves drink more of more concentrated colostrum
What factors influence the quality of colostrum?
Pre-calving milking or leaking, Short dry period, Premature calving or abortion, Heifers vs cows (heifers more naive but cows higher milk yield causes increased dilution), Mastitis, exposure to pathogens and vaccination of dam
What factors affect the volume of colostrum suckled?
Calf factors - weak calf, acidosis, dystocia, mouth problem
Teat factors - sore teats, teat shape/alignment, dropped udder
Mother factors - poor mothering, heifers, disturbance/stress, overcrowding of calving area, caesarean section, milk fever/downer cow, slippery floors
How can the farmer ensure passive transfer?
Assisted suckling with 20-30 minutes continuous suckling to ingest 2l of colostrum
Bottle and teat but need lots of practice
What does closure of the gut wall depend on?
Protein in the intestine
Time after calving (6h=66% absorption, 12h=46% absorption, 24h=12% absorption, 36h=7%)
How can you assess Ig uptake?
Measuring serum Ig of calf or specific gravity of colostrum