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Flashcards in Haematopoetic neoplasia Deck (116)
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1

What is the aetiology of canine lymphoma?

Genetic factors may be involved as breed predispositions in Boxers, Scottish Terriers, Bassets, bulldogs, Labradors, Airedales and St Bernards have been reported as well as familial incidences
Environmental factors include herbicides, strong magnetic fields and residence in industrial areas

2

What is the aetiology of feline lymphoma?

FeLV +ve increases risk due to recombination of FeLV genetic material with host DNA and may still be implicated in some cats testing -ve on p27 ELISA
FIV +ve increases risk due to unknown mechanism
Young Siamese and oriental cats predisposed
Tobacco smoke, IBD and immunosuppression also linked

3

What are the lymphoma predilection sites in dogs?

85% multicentric, 7% GI, 3% mediastinal/thymic, others less common than in cats except skin

4

What are the lymphoma predilection sites in cats?

25% LN and other, 4-12% just LNs, 50% GI, 10-20% mediastinal/thymic, <5% CNS, 5-10% renal, 5-10% nasopharyngeal, hepatic/splenic 5-10%, 1% skin

5

How do dogs with multicentric lymphoma present?

Peripheral lymphadenomegaly, often asymptomatic but sometimes vague lethargy, malaise, weight loss, anorexia, pyrexia, PU/PD if hypercalcaemic, +/- liver/spleen enlargement

6

Which LNs should be assessed in dogs with suspected lymphoma?

Submandibular, Prescapular, Axillary, superficial inguinal, popliteal

7

What are the DDx for multicentric lymphoma in dogs?

Disseminated infection causing lymphadenitis, immune-mediated diseases, other haematopoietic tumours, metastatic/disseminated neoplasia of other types, generalised skin disease, sterile granulomatous lymphadenitis

8

How do cats with multicentric lymphoma present?

Unusual and mostly just single/regional LN enlargement
Uncommon distinct form exists which involves solitary or regional LNs of head and neck

9

What DDx should be considered for multicentric lymphoma in cats?

Disseminated infection causing lymphadenitis, immune-mediated diseases, other haematopoietic tumours, metastatic/disseminated neoplasia of other types, generalised skin disease, sterile granulomatous lymphadenitis, benign hyperplastic LN syndromes

10

What are the presenting signs of GI lymphoma?

Weight loss, anorexia, vomiting and/or diarrhoea
Occasionally jaundice if liver involvement
Localised mass or multifocal diffuse thickened loops of intestine +/- mesenteric lymph node enlargement

11

What are the two different grades of GI lymphoma in cats?

High grade = mass lesions with relatively short history of illness, signs of GI obstruction
Low grade = diffuse thickening of intestinal loops or mild lymphadenmegaly, may have more chronic history

12

What are the DDx for Gi lymphoma?

IBD, other GI tumours, foreign bodies, intussusception
For cats rule out hyperthyroidism/renal failure/diabetes mellitus

13

What clinical signs are seen with mediastinal lymphoma?

Increased RR, tachypnoea, dyspnoea, dysphagia, weight loss, regurgitation, caudally displaced heart sounds, lung sounds reduced ventrally, loss of compressibility, caval syndrome, Horner's, hypercalcaemia in dogs

14

What are the DDx for mediastinal lymphoma?

Other tumours, non-neoplastic mass lesions, other causes of effusion

15

How do cases of renal lymphoma present?

Large irregular kidneys on palpation often bilaterally, signs of kidney disease (PU/PD, anorexia, weight loss)

16

What are the differential diagnoses for renal lymphoma?

Polycystic kidney disease, pyelonephritis, FIP, acute renal failure, hydronephrosis, perinephric pseudocyst, other renal tumours

17

How do animals with CNS lymphoma present?

Insidious or rapidly progressive neurological signs

18

What DDx should be considered to CNS lymphoma?

Other CNS tumours, trauma, infection, aortic thrombus/embolism, discospondylitis, FeLV associated non-neoplastic myelopathy

19

How do animals with nasal lymphoma present?

Chronic nasal discharge (serosanguinouse to mucopurulent), epistaxis, sneezing, stertor, anorexia, facial deformity, exophthalmus, epiphora

20

What are the DDx for nasal lymphoma?

Cat flu, other neoplasms, fungal infection

21

How do animals with laryngeal/tracheal lymphoma present?

Upper respiratory tract obstruction, dyspnoea often in older cats (median 9 years)

22

How does ocular lymphoma present?

Uveitis, blepharospasm, infiltration, haemorrhage, retinal detachment

23

Describe the epitheliotrophic form of cutaneous lymphoma

T-cell,
3 stages - scaling, alopecia, pruritis -> erythematous thickened, ulcerated, exudative -> proliferative plaques and nodules with progressive ulceration
May involve oral mucosa/mucocutaneous junctions

24

Describe the non-epitheliotrophic form of cutaneous lymphoma

Can be T or B cell
Affects mid to deep dermis sparing the epidermis

25

What are the differential diagnoses for cutaneous lymphoma?

Infectious dermatitis, immune-mediated dermatitis, histiocytic skin disease, other cutaneous neoplasia

26

What are the characteristics of mediastinal lymphoma?

Often T cell phenotype
Occurs in younger cats

27

What are the characteristics of renal lymphoma?

Median age at presentation is 9 years old
Can be concurrent lymphoma else where and 40-50% of treated cats develop CNS lymphoma
Often intermediate to high grade

28

What are the characteristics of CNS lymphoma?

>80% have mixed site involvement
One of the most common CNS tumours in cats
Can be intra/extra dural

29

What are the characteristics of nasal lymphoma?

Tends to be older cats (9-10 years)
75% B cell often localised but can spread
Intermediate to high grade

30

What are the different paraneoplastic syndromes that can be seen with lymphoma?

Hypercalcaemia
Hypergammaglobulinaemia
Haematological abnormalities
Rarely immune-mediated disease, polyneuropathy, hypoglycaemia