Flashcards in Fat Soluble Vitamins Deck (40):
Are vitamins organic or inorganic compounds?
They are organic.
Without vitamins our bodies would not be capable ________________
Sustaining functions necessary for daily activities.
Vitamins are needed in ________amounts to support what kind of functions?
Needed in small amounts to support a variety of chemical reactions and processes related to digestion, absorption, metabolism and body regulations.
True or false: vitamins yield energy.
False, vitamins do not yield any energy. , unlike carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, the classes of nutrients that do. Rather vitamins are important for the gorwth and maintenance of our bodies.
Vitamins are found from both _____ and ____ sources.
Plant and animal sources
Can all the vitamins we need be synthesized by our bodies?
No, absolutely not. Are you crazy?!
There aare some that don't have to be consumed through the diet such as Vitamin A, D , niacin, Vitamin K and biotin, but most have to be taken in through the diet.
What are the two criteria needed for a compound to be considered a vitamin?
Enough of the compound must be consumed in the diet to maintain health due to the inability of our bodies to manufacture the compound.
2. if we didn't get enough of the certain compound deficiency symptoms would occur resulting in declining health.
What are the two classifications of vitamins?
Fat soluble and water soluble
What are the specific fat soluble vitamins?
A, D, E and K.
What are the specific water soluble vitamins?
The B complex vitamins, of which there are eight and Vitamin C.
Fat soluble and water soluble vitamins are _________ differenly in the body.
Stored and absorbed
Fat soluble vitamins are absorbed into where?
The lymph system and are not easily excreted after storage. There is a dangeof excess consumption over time leading to a vitamin toxicity.
The water soluble vitamins are absorbed into where?
Directly into the bloodstream and easily dissolve in water. These therefore must be replenished on a daily basis because there is limited storage for them in the body. Chance of toxicity is minimal unless consumed in extremely large quantities.
Is it guaranteed that all the water soluble vitamins present in a food will be eaten and absorbed?
No, because of their ability to easily dissolve in water, water soluble vitamins are vulnerable to cooking losses. Excessive cooking, improper handling, heat, light and exposure to air can call destroy vitamins, especially those that are water soluble.
Ways to preserve vitamins in food....
Store canned goods in a cool place
2. use fruits and vegetables within a few days of harvest, refridgerate foods in moisture proof containers and blance vegetables prior to freezing.
What does it mean to say some foods are enriched?
The nutrients that were lost in the processing of that food have been added back into the final product.
What are fortified foods?
The process of supplementing a product with additional vitamins that would not normally be in that product.
What are fat soluble vitamins dependent on for absorption?
The presence of fat in the diet. Once absorbed they are stored in the liver and fatty tissue.
What are the two forms from which vitamin A can be found?
Preformed vitamin A comes from animal sources knwon as retinoids.
Provitamin A comes from carotenoids, which are pigments found in plant sources that can be converted to vitamin A.
Discuss vitamin A's impact on vision.
Vitamin A is needed to help the eyes adjust from bright to dim light. Without adequate intake of retinal, a form of vitamin A, the eye loses it ability to adjust to light and this is called night blindness. Other complications can result if the deficiency progresses - the eye loses it ability to make mucus and keep the eye moist. bacteria can infect the eye leading to a condition called Xerophthalmia, and the end result is blindness. Consumption of fruits and vegetables high in carotenoids may also help orevent an eye disorder that occurs as we age called macular degeneration.
Other functions of Vitamin A-
Important for the skin health and the health of the epithelial cells that line our GI tract, as well as the inside and outside of our body. These act as barriers to bacteria and provide immunity from infection.
Vitamin A is needed for growth, development and reproduction. Vitamin binds to DNA to produce a variety of proteins, a major requirement for cell development known as gene expression. Lack of vitamin A would lead to stunted growth in children and an inability to reproduce.
Vitamin A help prevent disease.
Sources of preformed Vitamin A
Preformed vitamin A is found in animal sources such as liver, fish, fish oils, fortified milk, yogurt and eggs.
Sources of provitamin A
Dark green leafy vegetables- spinach and kale
Yellow and orange fruits and vegetables such as sweet potatoes, cantaloupe and apricots.
What is the maximum intake of preformed vitamin A?
3000 micrograms per day for adults. Above this level could lead to toxicity resulting in increased hip fracture, liver toxicity and fetal malformations in pregnant women.
Are there any toxic effects with the intake of provitamin A?
No- your palms of your hands and soles of your feet could become more yellow if a large amount of orange and yellow vegetables are consumed. This resolves when the carotenoid levels decline.
Synthesized by the body through a series of reactions involving the sun and skin cells, the liver and the kidneys which create the finished product.
Primary function of vitamin D
Regulation of calcium levels and bone metabolism. Working with the parathyroid hormone, vitamin D regulates absorption of calcium and phosphorus from the intestine and deposition of calcium in the bones.
Vitamin D also important for the immune system, skin development, muscle health and blood pressure control.
Deficiency of Vitamin D complications in children
Bone problems children such as Rickets, and its characteristics bow legs.
Deficiency of vitamin D in Adults
Osteomalacia- soft bones caused by inadequate calcium absorption and deposition. As we age our bones continue to lose calcium and the production of vitamin D decreases. Osteoporosis occurs as bone mass decreases and bones thin and become porous.
What are good sources of Vitamin D, besides sun exposure?
Fatty fish, fortified cereal, eggs, butter, fortified milk and yogurt
What are the desired blood levels of vitamin D and what would be considered deficient?
20 ng/ml is considered deficient.
Toxicity from Vitamin D usually results from ________
One of the fat soluble vitamins- its major function is as an antioxidant protecting cell membranes from free radicals, which can alter a cell's DNA and increase the risk for cancer and damage to cell membranes.
The chemical name for Vitamin E
What is the main form of vitamin E in the body and the main form of Vitamin E in plants?
Alpha tocopherol in our body and gamma- tocopherol in plants.
Major sources of vitamin E
Oils, cereals, eggs, margarine, whole grains and nuts
What is the upper level of alpha tocopherol intake daily?
1000 mg per day of the supplemental form- toxic levels interfere with vitamin K's role in clotting and lead to hemorrhage.
Vitamin K sources
Oils, plants, fish, meats, green leafy vegetables, green beans, soybean oils canola oils and liver . The body also synthesizes vitamin K in the intestinal tract, intestinal bacteria is required for this synthesis
Primary functions of vitamin K
Blood clotting or coagulation, also needed for bone formation and to bind calcium to muscles and kidneys.