Proteins are important because .......
they are the building blocks of the body. They regulate essential body functions and have a role in fluid balance, hormone and enzyme productions and provide fuel to cells.
The sequence of amino acids determines the .....
shape of the protein and the shape in turn determines the function
How many amino acids does the body need to function?
20 different amino acids: 11 of these are nonessential because the body can manufacture them. 9 are essential because the body cannot synthesize them. Our diet must supplement this.
What is denaturation ?
Altering the structure of a protein, which is necessary for digestion to occur in the body. Denaturation can occur through heat, enzymes, acid or agitation
are animal meats complete or incomplete proteins?
They are complete proteins because they contain all the essential amino acids
Are plant proteins complete or incomplete proteins?
They are incomplete proteins, all except for soy. In order to get all the essential amino acids required, incomplete proteins must be combined to make a complete protein called a complementary protein.
What stimulates the production and release of pepsin in the stomach ?
The hormone gastrin activates pepsin, which begins to unravel the protein in the stomach.
What happens to the partially digested proteins as it travels into the small intestine?
The hormone cholecystokinin (CCK) is released in the small intestine, travels to the pancreas and causes the release of trypsin. These two hormones break the chains of amino acids into smaller units of 1, 2 or 3 amino acids. The amino acids are then absorbed into the portal vein, transported to the liver and enter the bloodstream. Excess protein can be converted to fat and stored.
Protein functions include
1. Body structure - muscles, connective tissue, mucus, hair, skin and nails are all comprised of protein.
2. Maintaining fluid balance - blood proteins attract fluid
3. Contribute to acid base balance - proteins act as buffers
4. Enzymes and hormones - needed to regulate body processes and catalyze reactions
5. Contribute to immune function - antibodies attack bacteria and virus
6. Provide energy and satiety - used for energy during exercise and calorie restriction
A body in a state of positive protein balance has.....
a greater intake of proteins than is lost.
Examples of someone in this state would be a pregnant mom, a growing child or teenager or someone recovering from an illness.
This is also known as "Anabolic state"
A body in a state of Negative protein balance ............
occurs when protein loss is greater than intake. This is also known as "Catabolic state"
This may occur during an illness or fasting, due to a trauma such as an accident or burn or inadequate calorie intake. Muscle wasting and loss of body mass is usually the result.
What is protein-calorie malnutrition?
Occurs when there is an inadequate intake of protein and calories over a period of time which leads to muscle wasting, and increased risk of infection due to a compromised immune system.
Protein-calorie malnutrition in children can be classifed as either K______ or M_______
Kwashiorkor or Marasmus
What is Kwashiorkor ?
State of malnutrtion in children where there is severe protein deficiency and moderate energy or calorie deficiency.
Edema-retaining fluids in the legs and abdomen
Mild to moderate weight loss
Rapid onset which occurs when a child is weaned from breast milkd
Listlessness, tired, change in hair and skin
What is Marasmus ?
Marasmus is a state of malnutrition in children where there is a severe deficiency of both calories and proteins.
Means to waste away in Greek.
The child slowly starves to death
Severe weight loss
Wasting of muscle and body fat, a result of famine or another illness in addition to Skin and bones appearance
Severe growth impairment
What is a semi-vegetarian ?
will include fish and poultry in their diet, but no red meat
What is a lacto-ovo vegetarian ?
include milk and eggs, but no animal flesh
will consume dairy products but no eggs or animal flesh
Will consume plant foods only
consumes only fruits, nuts, honey and vegetable oil.
This plan is not recommended as it leads to nutrient deficiencies.
Careful planning is needed when planning a plant based protein diet because....
plant protein is incomplete. It does not contain all the essential amino acids that animal meat does. One must plan carefully in order to consume all these essential nutrients from a variety of plant based proteins to ensure growth and development and prevent nutrient deficiencies.
Benefits of a vegetarian diet
Consume less fat, saturated fat, cholesterol and increased fiber. This can lower the risk for heart disease, obesity, hypertension and cancer.
Plant based diet recommendations
1. Choose whole grains and unrefined foods
2. Eat a variety of fruits and vegetables. The more colors on your plate, the more nutrients you receive.
3. Choose low fat dairy products
4. Eggs are an excellent protein source if we choose to consume them.
5. Choose a regular source of vitamin B12 and D either through fortified foods or supplements. B12 occurs naturally in only animal foods thus the need for fortification or supplements.
6. Eat a variety of foods
What are Amino acids?
The building blocks of proteins and are formed mostly of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen.