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What is the definition of nutrition?

The science that links food to health and disease.


It includes the processes by which humans ingest, digest, absorb, transport and excrete food substances.


Nutrition spans all ages and impacts our well-being from conception to death


What are the five dimensions of health that can be evaluated ?

Physical, Emotional, Spiritual, Intellectual and Social Health



Physical Health - ability of the body to perform daily functions for survival
Intellectual Health - the cognitive ability to learn and adapt
Emotional Health - the ability to express or suppress emotion
Social Health - ability to interact with others
Spiritual Health - purpose for human existence, cultural practices



What is the difference between food and nutrients ?


Food provides energy in terms of calories while

Nutrients are substances present in food that provide the materials for building and maintaining body parts, regulators for key metabolic processes and participate in metabolic reactions that provide energy to sustain life.



What are the two drives that influence our desire to eat ?

Hunger and Appetite


Difference between hunger and appetite

Hunger is an internal drive to find and eat food and is often experienced as a negative sensation such as a churning, growling or painful stomach sensation.


Appetite is an external drive that encourages us to find and eat food and

since it is related to pleasant sensations associated with food, it can lead us to eat even if we are not hungry.


What happens after having not eaten for awhile ?

The amount of nutrients in the blood begin to decline


What is the role of the hypothalamus in increasing and decreasing our hunger drive?

The hypothalumus responds to nerve signals that monitor the amount of nutrients in the blood. A decrease in nutrients in the blood stimulates the feeding center in the hypothalamus which signals us to eat. An increase in of nutrients in the blood stimulates the satiety center of the hypothalamus and our desire to eat declines.


the hypothalamus is constantly processing signals from a variety of nerves throughout the body which influence our food intake.


What factor does the GI tract play in determining what we eat and the quantity of food we consume?

The GI  tract contributes to the feeling of satiety (satisfaction)


What are hormones ?

Hormones are compounds secreted into the bloodstream by one type of cell designed to influence the activity of another type of cell.


 What are some hormones that increase hunger?





Hormones that decrease hunger



Cholecystokinin (CCK)


What produces the hormone gherlin?

The cells of the stomach. Gherlin hormone travels to the brain to stimulate the hunger center of the hypothalamus while also deactivating the satiety center.


What produces the hormone leptin ?

Leptin is produced by the fat cells of adipose tissue. It activates the satiety center of the hypothalamus when consuming a meal and alerts the it to turn off the hunger center.


Elevated, sustained levels of leptin can have what effect?

It interferes with the hunger/satiety balance and makes the satiety center insensitive to leptin


what are the external forces that determine what we eat?

Sensory- flavor, texture and appearance

Cognitive (habits, comfort foods, advertising, social factors, nutrtitional value)

Environmental ( economics, lifestyle, cultural/religous beliefs, environment)

Health Status (age and gender, declining taste sensitivity related to age or medications, physical restrictions related to disease)



What is the true purpose of eating ?

To nourish our bodies


What are the  nutrients in food used for?

The nutrients contained in each kind of food varies, therefore it  is important to have a varied and balanced diet to receive all the nutrients the body needs to

to promote growth and development, for maintenance of tissue, cells and bone, for fuel to do physical and metabolic work and for regulating body processes.


How many essential nutrients are there and why are they essential?

There are 45 essential nutrients.


They are essential because the body can either not make enough of these nutrients to sustain a healthy life or it cannot make them at all. The body needs these for growth and development, sustenance and maintenance.


What are the six classes of Nutrients and what are the three general functiosn they serve?

Carbohydrate, protein, Fat, Vitamin, Mineral, Water


Provide Energy

Regulate body process

Contribute to cell and body structure


 further Classifications of Nutrients

The six classes of nutrients can further be broken down into

Macronutrient - needed in large amounts in the body
Micronutrient - needed in small amounts in the body
Organic - a compound that contains carbon and hydrogen
Inorganic - any substance that does not contain carbon


Describe carbohydrates

composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen

complex or simple forms found in starches and sugars

Broken down into glucose which provides a source of energy for cells and tissue


Function: primary source of energy




What are sources of carbohydrates ?

Grains, vegetables, fruits, dairy products and legumes



Lipids are composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
Triglycerides (fats or oils), cholesterol and phospholipids

Function: Energy source, structure and regulation


What are sources of lipids ?

Sources: Fats and oils, meats and dairy products



Composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen as well as nitrogen
Made of smaller building blocks called amino acids

Function: Energy source, structure and regulation


What are sources of proteins?

Meat, dairy products, legumes, vegetable grains



Vitamins are organic nutrients needed in small amounts by the body.

Composed of carbon and hydrogen and may contain other elements

Fat soluble: A, D, E, K
Water soluble: B vitamins and Vitamin C

Vitamins are found in all food groups


Minerals -

simple inorganic substances. Macro-minerals: 16 minerals that the body needs in relatively large quantities
Micro-minerals: the remaining minerals are only needed in small amounts and are often referred to as the trace minerals

Functions: structure and regulation

Minerals are found in all food groups



Chemically, the simplest nutrient but the most important.

Water is needed by the body to regulate blood volume and pressure, for metabolic activities to take place, to provide structure.


Sources are beverages, a glass of water obviously and foods


What kind of energy is in food ?

Chemical energy................our body can convert this energy to electrical, mechanical or heat energy. All body functions and actions require energy.


What is the energy released from carbohydrates, fats, proteins and alcohol used for ?

Build new compounds (anabolism)

Perform muscular movements (mechanical energy)

Promote nerve transmissions (electrical energy)

Maintain ion balance within cells


What is a kilocalorie?

The amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of one kg of water one degree Celsius.


The energy potential of a particular food is determined by the composition of carbohydrate, protein and fat in that food


What is the term used to measure the energy potential in a food ?



What is each nutrients yield of kcal per gram ?

Carbohydrates   4 kcal/gram

Proteins              4 kcal/gram

Fats                      9 kcal/gram

Alcohol                7 kcal/gram


Alcohol, while not a nutrient class itself, is listed because it does provide energy but has no other nutritional value.


How do you calculate the energy available from foods ?

To determine how many calories are in a specific food, we must first know what is the nutrient composition of the food is.

Food labels or food composition tables will provide the number of grams of each nutrient in specific foods, and from this we can calculate the number of calories from each nutrient in that specific food.

___ grams of carbohydrates x 4 = ___________kcal
___ grams of proteins x 4 = _____________ kcal
___ grams of fat x 9 = _____________ kcal
Total = ___________ kcal




calculating the percentage of total calories each nutrient provides


peanut butter and jelly sandwich on white bread

47 grams of carbohydrates x 4 = 188 kcal
11 grams of protein x 4 = 44 kcal
14 grams of fat x 9 = 126 kcal
Total = 358 kcal


47 g carbs x 4 = 188 kcal188/358 x 100 =52.5% carb kcal

11 g protein x 4 = 44 kcal44/358 x 100 =12.3% protein kcal

14 g fat x 9 = 126 kcal126/358 x 100 =35.2% fat kcal

Total = 358 kcal  



What does the Food and Nutrtion Board of the National Academy of Sciences recommend for the daily percentage of each nutrient comprising our diet ?

A recommendation of 10% - 35% of our calories should come from protein, 45% - 65% from carbohydrates and 20% - 35% from fat.


What are the three categories of a person's nutritional status?

desirable nutrition, over-nutrition or under-nutrition.



Desirable nutrition is achieved by eating a variety of foods which provide all the essential nutrients to support normal body functions.




What is malnutrition ?

Malnutrtion - can refer to over nutrition or under nutrition.

Over-nutrition is the excess consumption of calories, fats, saturated fats and cholesterol which increase the risk for chronic disease. In the United States this over-consumption often results in obesity.

In some instances an over-consumption of some nutrients may be toxic to the body.


In under-nutrition nutrient intake does not meet nutrient needs and over time health begins to decline. Over time, as nutrient levels decline the body’s metabolic processes begin to slow or stop. At this point there are no symptoms indicating any problems. This is known as a sub-clinical deficiency. If the deficiency continues, eventually outward symptoms occur and a diagnosis can be made.





What are the ABCDE's of nutrtional assessment ?

An assessment can be completed by a physician and a Registered Dietitian to determine an individual’s state of health. There are five assessment categories that will provide a complete picture of an individual’s health. These are known as the ABCDE’s of nutritional assessment.


Anthropometric Assessment

Biochemical Assessment

Clinical Assessment

Dietary Assessment

Environmental Assessment




What does the Anthropometric assessment measure?

Measurements of body composition including weight, height, skin fold measurements and body circumference.


What does the clinical assessment measure ?

It is the physical exam. General appearance of the skin, eyes, tongue, teeth, and throat are evaluated. Blood pressure and mobility are also often checked.


What does the environmental assessment measure?

a review of the persons living conditions and back ground history. This could include: medical history, medication review, social history (marital status, living conditions), level of education, economic status


What does the dietary assessment measure?

a means to evaluate an individual’s dietary intake to determine if there are any problem areas.


What does the biochemical assessment measure ?

the measurement of nutrients in the blood, urine and feces.


What perplexing conundrum have scientists been grappling with for over a century?

For years scientists have been trying to translate the science of nutrition into practical terms that the general public could understand and actually use in making wise food choices.  Numerous guides have been created to serve as guides to healthy eating. As early as 1894, dietary guidance was provided by the US Department of Agriculture. 

Despite ongoing efforts to educate the public and encourage healthy eating habits, the obesity rate has continued to climb. A consensus was reached among the health community that a more consumer friendly icon was needed to bridge the gap between knowledge and action.



How do you bridge the gap between knowledge and action not just in nutrition but in life?

What does it take to get someone to act ...to become who they are meant to be.

For knowledge does not quite seem enough. It seems it is half the plate, and a less significant portion at that, than action. We can know something but still not do it.

Must I act first or know first, that is a question?


No answer necessary. Ponder only....


What is this ?

Yahhhh its the my plate


On June 3 of 2011, the USDA, in conjunction with The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (formerly the American Dietetic Association) and other health agencies, presented MyPlate to consumers.


It is slowly revolutionizing the entire planet. Not sure about that - but t the goal was to present consumers with a picture of what their plates should look like.


What does the myplate want design want to emphasize?

the five food groups - grains, protein, fruits and vegetables and dairy


the focus is on changing our typical intake where meat is the main stay of the diet. Instead fruits and vegetables should take up ½ of the plate, whole grains ¼ and protein ¼. 


The visual, MyPlate, continues to illustrate the concepts of Variety ( consume all food groups ), Moderation ( increase consumption for some groups and limit consumption of others) and Balance ( calories and portion size). These are concepts that most consumers can understand and hopefully implement daily. Making food choices based on MyPlate and being physically active most days will result in a healthy lifestyle.


What is the best part about the myplate.gov website and all its helpful tips and applications for enabling optimal health and nutrition ?

That its free!



What is a nutritional problem that the United States faces today?



Over-consumption of fats, saturated fats, cholesterol, trans-fats, alcohol and calories has been linked to poor dietary patterns and chronic disease. Cardiovascular disease, cancer, obesity and diabetes all are tied to over-consumption of foods and poor diet and exercise habits.


What is the DGAC and what do nutritional guide do they come up with that serves as the basis for all federal nutrtion education and program activities-

These include federal nutrition policy, education, outreach, and food assistance programs used by consumers, industry, nutrition educators, and health professionals. Educational tools, such as MyPlate, are then developed to relay healthy eating and physical activity guidelines for consumers.

Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (DGAC) consisting of nationally recognized experts in the field of nutrition and health update the guidelines every 5 years. Their recommendations are made after review of the current health issues, and based on a review of the latest scientific data. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans provides advice for making food and physical activity choices that promote good health, a healthy weight, and help prevent disease for Americans ages 2 years and over, including Americans at increased risk of chronic disease.


Who publishes the report called Healthly People that provides goals for consumers to meet in order to increase quality and years of healthy life?

The US Department of Health and Human Services publishes this report every 10 years


What is this ?


"get out of here, RUN, go go , I'll be right behind ya..."

the group scrambles through the passageway yet she pleads with him

No... don't do this."

I have to... meet me at the west gate... I'll be there (looks her firm in the eye)

she goes through the passage. hes left standing alone awaiting the approach of the monster, a fork in his hand and pam spray in the other

"Mac , I've been waiting a long, long time for this. Say cheese..

Come on, where are you ? he whispers

Suddenly, a mac and cheese monster in all its fatty contents bursts from above and he is overwhelmed by cheese and noodles.



Discuss the significance of food labels ?

One of the easiest tools that consumers can use for planning a healthy diet is food labels. Nearly all foods must be packaged in a label containing the following information:

Product name

Name and address of the manufacturer

Amount of product in the package

Ingredients listed in descending order by weight


A nutrition facts label must also be present. This is a key tool for product comparison and ensuring adequate intake of nutrients while limiting excess fats and calories.


What are the 4 types of claims that food manufactuers use ?

Health Claim

Preliminary Health Claim

Nutrient Claim

Structure/Function Claim


What is a health claim

these claims are closely regulated by the FDA. In order for a health claim to be made, there must be significant scientific evidence that links the food (nutrient in the food) with a reduced risk of a disease. For example, A diet rich in fruits and vegetables may reduce the risk of some types of cancer. A “may” or “might” must be used in this type of claim.


What is a preliminary health claim that could be  located on a food label?

this claim is regulated by FDA but a scientific link may not be established. Not many manufacturers have used this type of a claim. If it is used a statement similar to “this evidence is not conclusive” must also appear on the label.


What is a nutrient claim ?

closely regulated by the FDA. In this case a specific claim is being made about a nutrient. An example would include Low-fat crackers or low-sodium soup. The nutrient claim definitions are well defined and the product must adhere to the set standards.


Structure/function claim on a food label

not FDA approved. An example of this type of claim, “Product X contains Bee Pollen which may lower your stress level”. There does not have to be any scientific evidence to back up the claim, nor does it have to be valid. The FDA will only regulate these claims if the product may cause harm to the consumer


What are the key words to establishing a healthy diet ?

variety, balance and moderation