Flashcards in Fatty acid catabolism - Lecture 2 Deck (43)
All the enzymes involved in oxidation of FA are present in the ________.
The _____ FA obtained from the ______ cannot enter the mt.
In the first step of FA oxidation what occurs?
FA are conveted to Fatty acyl-CoA on the outer mt membrane by Fatty acyl CoA synthetase (aka thiokinase)
This reaction is coupled with ATP hydrolysis to AMP and two Pi.
What is the regulatory step for the fatty acid oxidation pathway?
Fatty acid activation
What happens to FAs before they can be transported into the mt?
Is FA activation favourable?
What is a co-factor of FA activation?
CoA (SH is active part)
Where is FA-CoA produced?
What is difficult with CoA and the mitochondria/cytosol>
CoA pools need to be kept separate.
How is FA-CoA (or just the FA in this case), transported into the mt?
Via the Fatty acyl-carnithine transporter.
How does FA-CoA get transported into the mt?
Carnithine is present in the cytosol.
FA group of Fatty acyl CoA is transferred to the OH group of carnithine by carrnityl acyl transferase 1 (CAT-1).
Fatty acyl--CArnitine estter is trnasported into the mt by a transporter.
CoA present in the cytosol attacks carnitine-FA (catalyzed by CAT-II), removing carnitine and reforming FA-CoA.
Carnitine is transported back out of the mt
Utilization of FA for oxidation and generation of ATP is achieved in three steps, these are?
1 - Beta oxidation of FA chain yielding acetyl-CoA
2 - Entry of acetyl-CoA in CAC yielding NADH, FADH2 and GTP
3 - Utilization of NADH and FADH2 in oxidative phosphorylation to generate ATP
The first fatty-acyl CoA DH enzyme of B-oxidation is liked to _____ and it directly transfers to ____ in ETC via _____.
If there is a 16C long FA, palmitic acid, how many acetyl-CoA will be generated?
How many times will it be cut?
Cut 7 times
Palmitic acid makes how many acetyl-CoA?
How much ATP can be generated from this?
Acetyl-CoA - 3 NADH, 1 FADH2, 1 GTP
3 NADH = 7.5 ATP
1 FADH2 = 1.5 ATP
So, per acetyl-CoA, get 10.
So, 80 ATP (should be 108)
What is the first reaction of b-oxidation?
The first enzyme catalyzes formation of a trans, alpha-beta bond.
uses FAD as a cofactor.
Enzyme linked to ETC via electron transferring flavoprotein
What is the second reaction of b-oxidation?
Hydration of the double bond by enoyl-CoA hydratase to form L-B-hydroxylacyl-CoA
What is the third reaction of b-oxidation?
NAD+-dependent dehydrogenation by L-B-hyoxylacyl-CoA DH to form B-ketoacyl-CoA
What is the fourth reaction of b-oxidation?
Alpha-beta carbon bond cleavage in athiolysis reaction with CoA.
Catalyzed by thiolase, produces acetyl-CoA and a new fatty-acyl-CoA with 2 fewer carbon units.
What is the first enzyme of B-oxidation?
fatty acyl-CoA DH
Where is fatty-acyl-CoA DH located? What does this mean?
Bound to mt membrane like succinate DH.
FADH2 produced from this reaction is quickly grabbed by complex 2 and the electrons are transferred to coq10.
After each cycle of B-oxidation what is made?
NADH, FADH2, acetyl-CoA and a fatty-acyl chain with 2 fewer carbon units.
How many water molecules are made from each cycle of B-oxidation.
How many are used?
What is the net synthesis or use of water?
1 net produced
So, going back to the earlier calculation. How many ATP are generated from 1 palmitic acid?
8 acetyl-CoA produced
7 NADH - 17.5
7 FADH2 - 10.5
8 GTPS - 8 ATP
24 NADH - 60
8 FADH2 - 12
Total = 108 ATP
From a 16C FA, how many CO2 are made?
16 since there are 16C
How many FADH2 are produced from B-oxidation of palmitic acid?
B-oxidation - 7
CAC - 8
Total - 15
How many NADH are produced from B-oxidation of palmitic acid?
B-oxidation - 7
CAC - 24
Total - 31
How many total water molecules are produced by B-oxidation?
2*7 = 14
8 *2 = 16
How many net water molecules are made from B-oxidation?
14 made from B-oxidation, 7 used - 7 net from b-oxidation
16 made from CAC
16 + 7 = 23
Each mol of palmitic acid completely oxidized produces how many ATP and how much water, net?