Fatty Acid Common Names Flashcards Preview

pH - Foundations 08-10-17 > Fatty Acid Common Names > Flashcards

Flashcards in Fatty Acid Common Names Deck (46):
1

Tetradecanoic Acid

Myristic Acid (14)

2

n-hexadecanoic Acid

Palmitic Acid (16)

3

n-Octadecanoic Acid

Stearic Acid (18)

4

n-Eicosanoic Acid

Arachidic Acid (20)

5

What 3 processes are Eicosanoids involved in?

1. Inflammation
2. Immunity
3. Messenger to CNS

6

What derives from Eicosnaoids?

Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids

7

What do COX inhibitors do?

Prevent synthesis of the omegas (aspirin, ibuprofen)

8

Oleic Acid

18 C's - 1 double bond at C9

9

Linoleic Acid

18 C's - 2 cis ouble bonds at C9 and C12

10

Alpha Linoleic Acid

18 C's - 3 cis double bonds at C9, C12, C15 (omega 3)

11

Arachidonic Acid

20 C's, 4 cis double bonds at C5, 8, 11, 14

12

What are the 2 essential fatty acids that cannot be synthesized by humans?

Linoleic Acid (LA) and Linolenic Acid (ALA)

13

What does linoleic acid turn in to?

Arachidonic Acid (AA) - Eicosanoids - Inflamation

14

What does linolenic turn in to?

EicosaPentaenoic (EPA) - docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (fish)

15

Does brain produce cholesterol independent of liver? Why or why not?

Yes, LDL cannot cross BBB

16

Order of prevalent lipids in membranes

Phospholipids > Glycolipids > Cholesterol

17

Cholesterol is precursor to what?

1. Steroid hormones
2. Vitamin D
3. Bile Salts

18

Fatty Acids can be what?

1. Energy Storage (if esterified to Triacylglycerol)
2. Membrane Structure (if esterified to Phospholipid)
3. Autacoid Signaling (if polyunsaturated)
4. Membrane Localization

19

Saturated fats increase what?

LDL, CHD, prostate/colon cancer

20

Omega 6 Polyunsaturated Fats decrease what? (also monounsaturated)

LDL, HDL, and CHD

21

What do omega 3 polyunsaturated do?

Decrease arrhythmias, platelet aggregation, CHD, sudden cardiac death, and has effects on membrane function

22

What is an arrhythmia?

Improper beating of heart

23

What is an aneurysm?

Excessive localized enlargement of an artery caused by weakening of artery wall

24

1cal

Energy required to raise 1mL of water 1 degree celsius

25

Flippase

Lipid from outer leaflet to inner leaflet (exterior to cytoplasm) REQUIRES ATP

26

Floppase

Lipid from inner leaflet to outer leaflet (cytoplasm to exoplasm) REQUIRES ATP

27

Scramblase

Goes both direction (don't require energy)

28

Why do flippase and floppase require ATP?

Creating order

29

Another name for flippase

P4 ATPases

30

Another name for floppase

ABC Transporter

31

How does phosphotidal serine get to outside? What does it do?

Scramblase gets PS to outside to signal for apoptosis (they get order over time)

32

What organelle doesn't have asymmetry?

ER

33

What does a liposome do?

Similar to micelle. Transports drugs or other substances into tissues

34

Where does cholesterol sit?

Deeply in phospholipid membrane with its small hydroxyl head group and favors raft formation

35

What is DHA?

Docosohexanoic Acid. With a long bent tail avoids rafts and favors interaction with membrane proteins

36

Most linked genetic factoid to Alzheimer's?

ApoE4 enzyme that is found in vesicles that bind cholesterol. 3-4X more risk if 1, 10-30X more risk if 2

37

How does it work when bound to cholesterol?

Decrease amyloid beta fibrils (increases when not bound)

38

Is ApoE2 better at decreasing them?

Yes

39

What is ABCA1?

Cholesterol floppase to ApoE

40

What is a lipid raft?

Part of lipid membrane that contains high amounts of cholesterol and glycosphingolipids

41

What is a lipoprotein?

Any of a group of soluble proteins that combine with and transport fat or other lipids in the blood plasma

42

Good cholesterol

HDL (high density lipoprotein)

43

Bad Cholesterol

LDL (low density lipoprotein)

44

VLDL

Very low density protein

45

Biggest lipoprotein?

Chylomicron (CM)

46

Caveolae

Small type of lipid raft