Flashcards in Fatty Acid Common Names Deck (46):
Myristic Acid (14)
Palmitic Acid (16)
Stearic Acid (18)
Arachidic Acid (20)
What 3 processes are Eicosanoids involved in?
3. Messenger to CNS
What derives from Eicosnaoids?
Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids
What do COX inhibitors do?
Prevent synthesis of the omegas (aspirin, ibuprofen)
18 C's - 1 double bond at C9
18 C's - 2 cis ouble bonds at C9 and C12
Alpha Linoleic Acid
18 C's - 3 cis double bonds at C9, C12, C15 (omega 3)
20 C's, 4 cis double bonds at C5, 8, 11, 14
What are the 2 essential fatty acids that cannot be synthesized by humans?
Linoleic Acid (LA) and Linolenic Acid (ALA)
What does linoleic acid turn in to?
Arachidonic Acid (AA) - Eicosanoids - Inflamation
What does linolenic turn in to?
EicosaPentaenoic (EPA) - docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (fish)
Does brain produce cholesterol independent of liver? Why or why not?
Yes, LDL cannot cross BBB
Order of prevalent lipids in membranes
Phospholipids > Glycolipids > Cholesterol
Cholesterol is precursor to what?
1. Steroid hormones
2. Vitamin D
3. Bile Salts
Fatty Acids can be what?
1. Energy Storage (if esterified to Triacylglycerol)
2. Membrane Structure (if esterified to Phospholipid)
3. Autacoid Signaling (if polyunsaturated)
4. Membrane Localization
Saturated fats increase what?
LDL, CHD, prostate/colon cancer
Omega 6 Polyunsaturated Fats decrease what? (also monounsaturated)
LDL, HDL, and CHD
What do omega 3 polyunsaturated do?
Decrease arrhythmias, platelet aggregation, CHD, sudden cardiac death, and has effects on membrane function
What is an arrhythmia?
Improper beating of heart
What is an aneurysm?
Excessive localized enlargement of an artery caused by weakening of artery wall
Energy required to raise 1mL of water 1 degree celsius
Lipid from outer leaflet to inner leaflet (exterior to cytoplasm) REQUIRES ATP
Lipid from inner leaflet to outer leaflet (cytoplasm to exoplasm) REQUIRES ATP
Goes both direction (don't require energy)
Why do flippase and floppase require ATP?
Another name for flippase
Another name for floppase
How does phosphotidal serine get to outside? What does it do?
Scramblase gets PS to outside to signal for apoptosis (they get order over time)
What organelle doesn't have asymmetry?
What does a liposome do?
Similar to micelle. Transports drugs or other substances into tissues
Where does cholesterol sit?
Deeply in phospholipid membrane with its small hydroxyl head group and favors raft formation
What is DHA?
Docosohexanoic Acid. With a long bent tail avoids rafts and favors interaction with membrane proteins
Most linked genetic factoid to Alzheimer's?
ApoE4 enzyme that is found in vesicles that bind cholesterol. 3-4X more risk if 1, 10-30X more risk if 2
How does it work when bound to cholesterol?
Decrease amyloid beta fibrils (increases when not bound)
Is ApoE2 better at decreasing them?
What is ABCA1?
Cholesterol floppase to ApoE
What is a lipid raft?
Part of lipid membrane that contains high amounts of cholesterol and glycosphingolipids
What is a lipoprotein?
Any of a group of soluble proteins that combine with and transport fat or other lipids in the blood plasma
HDL (high density lipoprotein)
LDL (low density lipoprotein)
Very low density protein