Feeding Healthy Infants, Children, and Adolescents Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Feeding Healthy Infants, Children, and Adolescents Deck (105)
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1

How often should infants feed?

At least 8x/24 hrs

2

Breastfeeding is protective agains what acute disorders

Diarrhea, otitis media, UTI, NEC, septicemia, infant botulism

3

Breastfeeding is protective agains what chronic disorders

IDDM, celiac disease, Crohn's disease, childhood cancer, recurrent OM, allergy

4

T/F Breastfeeding is protective against overweight and obesity

T

5

T/F Varicella zoster infection is a contraindication to breastfeeding

T

6

T/F Herpes simplex virus infection is a contraindication to breastfeeding

T, if with active herpetic lesions of the breast

7

T/F CMV infection is a contraindication to breastfeeding

T

8

T/F Breastfeeding should be delayed in infants of mothers with hepatitis B infection until workup has been completed

F, no delay required

9

Maternal alcohol intake should be limited to ___ while breastfeeding

0.5g/kg/day, ~2 cans of beers, ~2 glasses of wine, ~ 2 ounces of liquor

10

T/F Cigarette smoking is not a contraindication to breastfeeding

T, but is discouraged

11

T/F Breastfeeding is generally contraindicated in mothers undergoing chemotherapy

T

12

MC reasons for nipple pain while breastfeeding

Poor infant positioning and improper latch

13

Mx for mastitis

1) Oral abx and analgesics 2) Promote breastfeeding or emptying of the affected breast

14

Mx for breast abscess

Temporary cessation of breastfeeding

15

Mx for breastmilk jaundice

Infant formula for 24-48h and/or phototherapy without cessation of breastfeeding

16

Calories provided with formula feeding in general

20kcal//30mL

17

Usual intake to allow a weight gain of 25-30g/day in the first 3 months of life

140-200 mL/kg/day milk formula

18

Whole cow's milk should not be introduced until

12 months of age

19

Predominant whey protein in bovine milk

β-globulin

20

Predominant whey protein in human milk

α-lactalbumin

21

Soy protein-based formulas are indicated among patients with (2)

1) Galactosemia 2) Hereditary lactase deficiency

22

T/F Soy protein-based formulas are lactose-free

T

23

T/F Atopic dermatitis may be delayed or prevented in early childhood by the use of extensively or partially hydrolyzed formulas compared to cow's milk formula

T

24

Preferred formula for infants intolerant to cow's milk or soy proteins

Extensively hydrolyzed formulas

25

T/F There is no significant harm associated with introduction of complementary foods at 4 months of age

T

26

There is no significant benefit from exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months in terms of (6)

1) Iron 2) Zinc 3) Growth 4) Nutriture 5) Allergy 6) Infections

27

T/F Important principles for weaning: Energy density should not exceed that of breastmilk

T

28

T/F Important principles for weaning: Iron-containing foods are required

T

29

T/F Important principles for weaning: Zinc intake should be encouraged

T

30

Important principles for weaning: Intake of ___ should be low to enhance mineral absorption

Phytate

31

Important principles for weaning: Give no more than ___ ounces per day of cow's milk

24 (~3 standard bottles)

32

Important principles for weaning: No more than ___ ounces per day of fruit juices

4-6

33

Bedtime bottles should be discouraged because of the association with

Dental caries

34

T/F A newborn can already discriminate between sweet and sour

T

35

Toddlers need to eat ___x per day

5

36

Most commonly consumed vegetable among toddlers and pre-schoolers

French fries

37

Among school-aged children and adolescents, new foods can be offered repeatedly ___x to establish acceptance or rejection of that food

8-10

38

Associated with improved diet quality due to the increased opportunities for positive parenting

Regular family meals sitting at a table

39

Undernutrition is usually an outcome of 3 factors

1) Household level food security 2) Access to health and sanitation services 3) Child caring practices

40

Most important causes of undernutrition

1) Inadequate knowledge 2) Lack of time women have available for appropriate infant care practices and their own during pregnancy

41

Most important factor for undernutrition in times of famine and emergency

Food insecurity

42

Define food security

Access by all people at all times to sufficient foods in terms of quality, quantity, and diversity for an active and healthy lifestyle without risk of loss of such access

43

Greatest risk of undernutrition occurs during

1) Pregnancy 2) First 2 years of life

44

Effects of early damage due to undernutrition during pregnancy and first 2 years of life are potentially irreversible

T

45

2 main causes of LBW

1) Prematurity (developed countries) 2) IUGR (developing countries)

46

Measures skeletal growth which reflects the cumulative impact of events affecting nutritional status that result in stunting

Height for age

47

Reflects chronic malnutrition

Height for age

48

Most immediate consequence of undernutrition

Premature death

49

Key interventions proven to be cost effective in reducing infant and child mortality, improving underweight rates, and reversing micronutrient deficiencies

1) EBF 2) Proper complementary feeding 3) Key hygiene behavior 4) Micronutrient interventions 5) Presumptive treatment for malaria for pregnant women in endemic malarial regions and promoting long-lasting insecticide treated bednets 6) Deworming and oral hydration 7) Fortifying

50

Most severe forms of malnutrition

1) Maramus 2) Kwashiorkor

51

Marasmus vs Kwashiorkor: Nonedematous

Marasmus

52

Marasmus vs Kwashiorkor: Results primarily from inadequate ENERGY or BOTH energy and protein intake

Marasmus

53

Marasmus vs Kwashiorkor: Edematous

Kwashiorkor

54

Marasmus vs Kwashiorkor: Results primarily from inadequate PROTEIN intake

Kwashiorkor

55

Marasmus vs Kwashiorkor: Failure to gain weight and irritability, followed by wt loss and listlessness until emaciation

Marasmus

56

T/F In Kwashiorkor, edema occurs EARLY

T, can mask failure to gain weight

57

Marasmus vs Kwashiorkor: Skin loses turgor and becomes wrinkled and loose

Marasmus

58

Marasmus vs Kwashiorkor: Liver enlargement can occur

Kwashiorkor

59

Marasmus vs Kwashiorkor: Dermatitis common

Kwashiorkor

60

T/F In Marasmus, loss of fat from sucking pads of cheeks occurs early

F, late

61

Marasmus vs Kwashiorkor: Muscle atrophy with resultant hypotonia

Marasmus

62

Marasmus vs Kwashiorkor: Hair is sparse and thin

Kwashiorkor

63

Chronic necrotizing ulceration of the gingiva and cheek caused by polymicrobial infection with F. necrophorum and P. intermedia

Noma

64

Tx for Noma

Penicillin and Metronidazole

65

3 phases of SAM treatment

1) Initial phase (1-7 days) 2) Rehabilitation phase (weeks 2-6) 3) Follow-up phase (weeks 7-26)

66

3 phase of SAM treatment: Stabilization phase

Initial phase

67

3 phase of SAM treatment: Correction of dehy and initiation of antibiotic

Initial phase

68

3 phase of SAM treatment: F100 diet

Rehab phase

69

3 phase of SAM treatment: RUTF diet

Rehab phase

70

3 phase of SAM treatment: Feeding to cover catch-up growth

Follow up phase

71

3 phase of SAM treatment: Oral feedings started with specialized high-calorie formula like F75

Initial phase

72

Initial caloric intake in the initial phase of SAM tx

80-100 kcal/kg/day

73

Caloric content of F75

75kcal or 315kJ/100mL

74

Protein content of F75

0.8g

75

Caloric content of F100

100kcal or 420kJ/100mL

76

Protein content of F100

2.9g

77

Caloric goal in the rehab phase of SAM tx

100kcal/kg/day

78

3 phase of SAM treatment: Iron therapy started

Rehab phase

79

T/F Feeding during the follow up phase of SAM tx should be as libitum

T

80

Hallmark of refeeding syndrome

Severe hypophosphatemis during the 1st week of starting to refeed

81

3 phase of SAM treatment: Treat or prevent hypogly, hypothermia, dehy

First 1-2 days of intial phase

82

3 phase of SAM treatment: Correct electrolyte imbalance

Initial to rehab phase

83

3 phase of SAM treatment: Treat infection

Initial phase

84

3 phase of SAM treatment: Correct micronutrient deficiencies without iron

Initial phase

85

3 phase of SAM treatment: Correct micronutrient deficiencies with iron

Rehab phase

86

3 phase of SAM treatment: Correction of micronutrient deficiencies

Initial to rehab phase

87

3 phase of SAM treatment: Increase feeding to recover lost weight

Rehab to ff up phase

88

3 phase of SAM treatment: Prepare for discharge

Rehab phase

89

Marasmus vs Kwashiorkor: Irritable

Marasmus

90

Marasmus vs Kwashiorkor: Extremely emaciated

Marasmus

91

Marasmus vs Kwashiorkor: Apathetic

Kwashiorkor

92

Marasmus vs Kwashiorkor: Old man's appearance

Marasmus

93

Marasmus vs Kwashiorkor: Skin atrophic and cracked, prone to infection

Kwashiorkor

94

Marasmus vs Kwashiorkor: Normal hair

Marasmus

95

Marasmus vs Kwashiorkor: Frequent infections with minimal external signs (usually no fever)

Marasmus

96

Marasmus vs Kwashiorkor: Hair yellow to reddish

Kwashiorkor

97

Marasmus vs Kwashiorkor: Generally not dehydrated by can be hypovolemic

Kwashiorkor

98

Marasmus vs Kwashiorkor: Frequently dehydrated and usually dehydration is overestimated

Marasmus

99

Bilateral pitting edema of Kwashiorkor begins where

Lower legs and feet

100

T/F Exclusion of peanut and nut products from maternal diet while breastfeeding promotes allergy prevention

T

101

T/F Delay in introduction of major allergenic foods when complementary feeding promotes allergy prevention

T

102

When to introduce cow's milk to prevent allergy development

1 yr

103

When to introduce egg to prevent allergy development

18-24 months

104

When to introduce peanut and tree nuts to prevent allergy development

3 yrs

105

When to introduce seafood to prevent allergy development

3 yrs