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Flashcards in Vitamins and Minerals Deck (136)
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1

Physiologically most important Vitamin A metabolite

Retinoic acid

2

Most characteristic and specific signs of vit A deficiency are

Eye lesions

3

Vit A deficiency: Caused by absence of retinal pigment rhodopsin

Night blindness

4

Vit A deficiency: Dry, scaly layer of cells in the cornea

Xerophthalmia

5

Vit A deficiency: Characeristic lesion

Xerophthalmia

6

Vit A deficiency: Development of plaques after the conjunctiva keratinizes

Bitot spots

7

Vitamin B1

Thiamine

8

Vitamin B2

Riboflavin

9

Vitamin B3

Niacin

10

Vitamin B6

Pyridoxine

11

Vitamin B12

Cobalamin

12

Vitamin that serves as cofactor for several enzymes in CARBOHYDRATE metab

B1

13

Vitamin that is part of the structure of coenzymes that participate in REDOX reactions and energy production via the mitochondrial respiratory chain

B2

14

Vitamin that forms part of 2 cofactors, NAD and NADP in the respiratory chain, FATTY ACID, and STEROID synthesis, cell diff, and DNA processing

B3

15

Vitamin that functions as coenzymes in AMINO ACID metab and steroid action

B6

16

Vitamin that serves as cofactor for isomerization of methylmalonyl Co-A to succinyl CoA

B12

17

Vitamin that is important for synthesis of collagen at the level of hydroxylation of lysine and proline in precollagen

Vitamin C

18

Vitamin that is required for the synthesis of GABA and Ach for nerve conduction

B1

19

Vitamin that can be synthesized from tryptophan in the diet

B3

20

Vitamin that is almost exclusively from animal foods

B12

21

Vitamin deficiency: Associated with diet consisting of polished rice

B1 (oriental beriberi)

22

Vitamin deficiency: Peripheral neuritis, decreased DTRs, loss of vibration sense, tenderness and cramping of leg musculature, CHF, psychic distrubances

B1 (beriberi)

23

Vitamin deficiency: Wernicke enceph

B1 (beriberi: mental status changes, ocular signs, ataxia)

24

Vitamin deficiency: Angular cheilosis in a malnourished child

B2

25

Vitamin deficiency: Glossitis, keratitis, conjunctivitis, photophobia, lacrimation, corneal vasculatization, seb derm

B2

26

Vitamin deficiency: Pellagra

B3

27

Vitamin deficiency: Occurs in population where corn is the major foodstuff

B3 (Pellagra)

28

Vitamin deficiency: Glycine metab can lead to oxaluria

B6

29

Vitamin deficiency: Risk increased in persons taking INH, penicillamine, steroids, and anticonvulsants

B6 (vitamin B6 inhibitors)

30

Vitamin deficiency: Strict vegetarian or vegan diets

B12

31

Vitamin deficiency: Pernicious anemia due to intrinsic factor deficiency

B12

32

Vitamin deficiency: Scurvy

Vitamin C

33

Vitamin deficiency: Leg swelling and pseudoparalysis, subperiosteal hemorrhages in the lower limb bones

Vitamin C

34

Vitamin deficiency: Rickets

Vitamin D

35

Vitamin deficiency: Craniotabes

Vitamin D

36

Vitamin deficiency: Hemolysis and neurologic manifestations

Vitamin E

37

Vitamin deficiency: Low erythrocyte transketolase activity (ETKA) and high thiamine pyrophosphate effect (TTPE)

B1

38

Vitamin deficiency: Dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, death, photosensitivity

B3 (classic pellagra triad: dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia)

39

Vitamin deficiency: Peripheral neuritis is a feature of deficiency in adults

B6

40

Vitamin deficiency: Seen in ileal resections due to Crohn's disease

B12

41

Vitamin deficiency: Rosary at costochondral junction

Vitamin C

42

Vitamin deficiency: Typical radiographic changes occur at distal ends of long bones

Vitamin C

43

Vitamin deficiency: Horizontal depression along lower anterior chest

Vitamin D (Harrison groove)

44

Vitamin deficiency: Rachitic changes most easily visualized on PA radiographs of wrist

Vitamin D

45

Vitamin deficiency: Primary deficiency rare except in premature infants and severe, generalized malnutrition

Vitamin E

46

Vitamin deficiency: Shafts of long bones have ground-glass appearance due to trabecular atrophy

Vitamin C

47

Vitamin deficiency: Pencil outlining of diaphysis and epiphysis

Vitamin C

48

Vitamin deficiency: Disease of growing bone and occurs in children only before fusion of the epiphyses

Vitamin D (Rickets)

49

Vitamin deficiency: Edge of metaphysis loses its sharp border (fraying)

Vitamin D

50

Vitamin deficiency: Irregular but thickened white line at the metaphysis representing the zone of well-calcified cartilage

Vitamin C (White line of Frenkel)

51

Vitamin deficiency: Edge of metaphysis changes from a convex or flat surface to a more concave surface (cupping)

Vitamin D

52

Vitamin deficiency: More specific but late radiographic feature is a zone of refraction under the white line at the metaphysis

Vitamin C (Trumerfed zone)

53

Vitamin deficiency: Hemolysis during the 2nd month of life in premature infants

Vitamin E

54

3 forms of vitamin K-deficiency bleeding

1) Classic HDN/sec to low stores of Vit K at birth 2) Late VKDB 3) At birth or shortly thereafter/sec to maternal intake of meds that cross placenta and interfere with vit K function

55

Vit K deficiency bleeding: Occurs mostly in breastfed infants on days 1-14

Classic HDN

56

Characteristic sign of beriberi

Hoarseness or aphonia caused by paralysis of laryngeal nerve

57

2 types of beriberi

Dry/neuritic and wet/cardiac

58

Death in beriberi is usually secondary to

Cardiac involvement

59

Site of absorption of Vit B12

Ileum

60

Necessary for Vit B12 absorption

Intrinsic factor

61

Site of absorption of Vit C

Upper small intestine

62

Most potent compound of Vit E

α-tocopherol

63

Main form of vitamin E in humans

α-tocopherol

64

Thiamine can be retained in rice by

Parboiling (steaming rice in the husk before milling)

65

Children with cardiac failure, convulsions, or coma from B1 deficiency should be given

10mg thiamine IM or IV daily for the 1st week, then 3-5mg orally for at least 6 weeks

66

Most characteristic manifestation of pellagra

Dermatitis

67

Important confirmatory test for vit B3 deficiency

Rapid clinical response to niacin

68

Cofactor for enzymes in CAROBXYLATION reactions within and outside the mitochondria

BBiotin

69

Known biotin antagonist found in egg whites

Avidin

70

Anticonvulsant that can cause biotin deficiency

Valproic acid

71

Mineral known for its role in DNA and RNA synthesis

Folate

72

Indicator of chronic folate deficiency

RBC folate

73

T/F Hematologic manifestations of B12 deficiency is similar to folate deficiency

T

74

MCC of rickets

Vit D deficiency

75

Technically not a vitamin because it can be synthesized in skin epithelial cells

Vitamin D

76

Humoral mediator that decreases renal tubular absorption of phosphate and decreases activity of renal 1α-hydroxylase

Phosphatonin

77

Type of rickets: Mutation in gene encoding renal 1α-hydroxylase

Vit D-dependent rickets type 1

78

Type of rickets: Mutation in gene encoding vitamin D receptor

Vit D-dependent rickets type 2

79

Actions of 1,25-D

1) Increase intestinal absorption of Ca 2) Bone resorption 3) Suppress PTH secretion

80

1α-hydroxylase is upregulated by

PTH and hypophosphatemia

81

Most well-characterized phosphatonin

FGF-23

82

T/F Overproduction of phosphatonin may cause rickets

T

83

80% of transfer of calcium and phosphorus to the fetus occurs during

3rd trimester

84

T/F Children with light complexion are at increased risk for Vitamin D deficiency because of decreased cutaneous synthesis

F, increased skin pigmentation

85

Ensures rapid cure for Vitamin C deficiency

Supplements of 100-200mg/day

86

Amount of vitamin C that can cause GI problems

>2g/day

87

Most abundant circulating form of vitamin D

25-hydroxyvitamin D

88

Recommended upper limits for long term vit D intake

1000IU <1y/o, 2000IU for older children and adults

89

Dominant mechanism for hypercalcemia in hypervitaminosis D

Excessive bone resorption

90

Signs and symptoms of hypervitaminosis D are secondary to

Hypercalcemia

91

Mineral deficiency: Periorificial dermatitis, conjunctivitis, thinning of hair, alopecia

Biotin

92

Mineral deficiency: Megaloblastic anemia

Folate

93

Mineral deficiency: Hypersegmentation of neutrophils

Folate

94

Mineral deficiency: Polyostic fibrous dysplasia, hyperpigmented macules, polyendocrinopathy

Phosphorus (McCune Albright Syndrome)

95

Mineral deficiency: Epidermal nevus syndrome

Phosphorus

96

Mineral deficiency: Neurofibromatosis

Phosphorus

97

Mineral deficiency: Fractures and softening of ribs leading to decreased chest compliance, atelectasis, poor ventilation and respiratory distress at <5 weeks after birth

Calcium and phosphorus (rickets of prematurity)

98

Serum phos in rickets of prematurity

Low or low-normal

99

Serum calcium in rickets of prematurity

Low, normal, or high

100

Suspected in infants with ALP 5-6x upper limit of normal or phosphorus <5.6mg/dL

Rickets of prematurity

101

Vitamin Excess: Hypercalcemia + elevated serum 25-D level

Vitamin D

102

MC site of bleeding in classic HDN

GIT, mucosal and cutaneous tissue, umbilical stump, post-circumcision type

103

Onset of late VKDB

2-12 weeks up to 6 months

104

Almost all cases of late VKDB occurs in what population

Breastfed infants

105

MC site of late onset VKDB

Intracranial

106

T/F In VKDB, prolonged PT corrects rapidly after administration of Vitamin K

T, PT decreases within 6 hrs and normalizes within 24h

107

Vit K dependent clotting factor with the shortest half-life and is the first factor affected in Vitamin K deficiency

VII

108

Oral or parenteral Vit K prevents what type of VKDB

Early VDKBB

109

Universally effective in preventing late VKDB

Single IM administration of 1mg vitamin K

110

Mineral deficiency: Populations in inland areas

Iodine

111

Mineral deficiency: Keshan cardiomyopathy

Selenium

112

Mineral deficiency: Menkes disease

Copper (mutation in gene encoding for protein that facilitates intestinal absorption)

113

Mineral deficiency: Acrodermatitis enteropathica

Zinc

114

Mineral deficiency: Seen in individuals with diets rich in phytates

Zinc (binds zinc, impairing its absorption)

115

T/F Boiling milk destroys vitamin B1

T

116

Vitamin deficiency: Nasolabial seborrhea

B2, B6

117

Vitamin deficiency: Posterior lateral spinal column disease

B12

118

Vitamin deficiency: Vitiligo

B12

119

Vitamin deficiency: Fish tapeworm infection

B12

120

Mineral deficient in goat's milk that results in anemia

Folate

121

T/F Heat inactivates folate

T

122

Vitamin that may improve tyrosine metabolism in preterm infants

Ascorbic acid

123

Vitamin deficiency: Elevated PIVKA

Vitamin K

124

Vitamin deficiency: Seen in exclusively breasted infants

Vitamin K

125

Vitamin excess: Chronic elevation is teratogenic

Vitamin A

126

Vitamin excess: Consumption of polar bear liver

Vitamin A

127

Vitamin excess: Antagonism of Vitamin K

Vitamin E

128

Vitamin excess: Improve libido

Vitamin E

129

Vitamin excess: Schizophrenia

B1

130

Mineral deficiency: Spoon nails

Iron

131

Mineral deficiency: Reduced muscle and mental performance

Iron

132

Anemia in copper deficiency

Hypochromic

133

Mineral deficiency: Seen in long-term TPN

Selenium

134

Functions as insulin cofactor

Chromium

135

Types of cretinism: Aka congenital hypothyroidism

Myxedematous cretinism

136

Types of cretinism: Mental retardation, deafness, spasticity, normal thyroxine at bbirth

Neurologic cretinism