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Flashcards in Nutritional Requirements Deck (27)
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1

Nutrition and growth during ___ predict adult stature amd some health outcomes

First 3 yrs of life

2

Leading cause of acquired immunodeficiency

Malnutrition and undernutrition

3

3 components of energy expenditure

BMR, thermal effect of food, energy for physical activity

4

Average dietary energy intake predicted to maintain energy and balance in a healthy individual of a defined group

EER

5

Most calorically dense macronutrient

Fat

6

Calories provided by fat

9kcal/g

7

Dietary advice to optimize cardiovascular health should be dispensed for children starting what age

2 y/o

8

T/F Trans fat have no known beneficial effects in humans

T

9

Optimal fat fat intake should be ___ of total energy intake, ___ from saturated fat, ___ from trans fat, and ___ from cholesterol

<30%, <1/3, none, <300mg/day

10

Essential fatty acids

α-linolenic (ALA), and linoleic (LA)

11

Calories from protein

4kcal/g

12

Reference amino acid composition by which biologic quality is determined for infants

Breastmilk

13

Conditiona essential/indispensible amino acids for newborns because of enzyme immaturity

Cysteine, tyrosine, arginine (CAT)

14

Single amino acid in a food protein source that is low or absent but is required to support normal metabolism

Limiting nutrient

15

Limiting amino acid in soy-based formula

Methionine

16

Calories in carbohydrates

4kcal/g

17

Organs that depend most on glucose as an energy substrate

CNS and erythrocytes

18

Dietary carbohydrate requirements are based on

Estimated brain requirements

19

A measure of the area under the curve of blood sugar over time (2 hours) following ingestion against the reference standard

Glycemic index

20

Low glycemic index foods are recommended and can reduce the risk of

Insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease

21

Best characterized nondigestible carbohydrates derived mostly from plant sources

Dietary fiber

22

Dietary fibber reach the colon nearly ___% intact

100

23

Important by-product of colonic fermentation of dietary fiber that act as fuel for colonocyte

SCFAs acetate, butyrate, and proprionate

24

Preferred fuel for the colonocyte derived from dietary fiber fermentation in the colon

Butyrate

25

Nutrients which are present in lower amounts in infant formula but are more bioavailable and sufficient to meet infant needs until 4-6 months of age

Iron and zinc

26

T/F Breastmilk is rich in vitamin D

F, POOR

27

The AAP recommends daily supplementation ___ IU vitamin D in all children who are ingesting <1000 L/day of vitamin D-fortified milk

400