Female Genital Tract Flashcards Preview

Year 2 Pathology > Female Genital Tract > Flashcards

Flashcards in Female Genital Tract Deck (34):
1

What is HPV and what does it stand for?

Human Papilloma Virus

It's transmitted by sexual contact. Risk increased by numbers of sexual partners. No symptoms. Thought to be main cause of CIN and therefor cervial cancer.

2

What does CIN stand for?

It mean Cervical Intra-epithlial Neiplasm.

It's the stages for developing cervical cancer

3

Who is at risk of getting Cervical cancer?

-HPV
-Smoking
-Non attendance to CSP screening

4

Name some symptoms of Cervical cancer.

-Abnormal discharge
-Abnormal bleeding
-On examination cervix appears abnormal

5

Name a benign condition affecting the cervix

Endocervical Polyps

Small elongated tumours that grow in the cervix

6

What does Menorrhagia stand for?

It means heavy periods. (more than 80mls blood loss)

1 in 20 women

7

How may you treat heavy periods?

-Mirena coil
-Combined oral contreceptive pill (COCP)
-Mefanamic and tranexamic acid
-Defo provera
-Endometrial ablation
-Hysterectomy

8

Name some symptoms of Endocervical Polyps

-Irregular vaginal bleeding 'spotting'
-Benign Lesions
-Can be removed at hysteroscopy

9

What are FIBROIDS (leiomyomas)?

They are very common benign tumours of the uterus.

10

What is the name given to the common benign tumour of the Uterus?

FIBROIDS (Leiomyomas)

Arise from myometrium (uterine muscle wall). Can present with heavy painful periods, pelvic pain or distension.
Treatment depends on symptoms and wishes for pregnancy.

11

Name some symptoms of the benign tumours of the uterus (Fibroids)...

-Heavy painful periods
-Pelvic Pain
-Distension

12

Which disease of the uterus is caused by infection that is usually sexually transmitted?

Endometriosis and Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

13

Name some symptoms of Endometriosis and Pelvic Inflammatiry disease?

-Abnormal discharge
-Pain
-Bleeding
-Can be asymptomatic

MAJOR CAUSE OF INFERTILITY

14

What is the name of the condition where Endometrial tissue is in the wrong location (ie outside the endometrium) . Very common benign condition.

ENDOMETRIOSIS

Can present with heavy periods, painful sex and pelvic pain.

Treatment depends on symptoms and often difficult to treat.

15

How do you treat endometriosis?

Depends on symptoms. Often difficult to treat.
-Combined oral contreceptive pill (COCP)
-Mirena coil
-Meds- Zoladex
-Surgery

16

What are endometrial polyps?

They're benign growths from the endometrial cavity. They can be removed at hysteroscopy

17

What is the name given to the cancer of the lining of the uterus?

Endometrial Cancer

18

What are some of the risk factors for Endometrial Cancer (cancer of the uterus lining)?

-Never given birth (nulliparity)
-High BMI
-HRT
-Late menopause

19

What is the main symptom of Endometrial Cancer which often allows it to be detected early...

Often presents with post menopausa; bleeding and so is detected early.

Treatment usually hysterectomy

20

There are 3 types of Ovarian cyst. Name them ...

-Follicular cysts (benign, common, less than 6cms, often asymptomatic)
-Cystadenomas (very large fluid filled cycts. Symptoms caused by pressure effect)
-Benign Mature Teratomas (large cysts filled with solid Substances)

21

What is the name given to a common condition where multiple cycts grow on the ovaries?

Polycystic ovarian syndrome

Major cause of infertility

22

What are some of the symptoms of Polycyctic Ovarian Syndrome?

-Irregular periods
-No periods
-Infertility
-Many other symptoms (facial hair, low voice, weight gain)

23

What are some of the complications/ risks associated with Polycyctic Ovarian Syndrome?

-Increased Cardiovascular risk
-Increased risk of T2DM
-Increased Problems in pregnancy

24

How do you treat Polycyctic Ovarian Syndrome?

-Combined Oral Contreceptive Pill (COCP)
-Metformin
-Clomifene

25

True or false:

In ovarian tumours, if in younger women it's more likely to be malignant. In older women it's more likely to be benign?

FALSE

Usually benign in younger women. Usually malignant in older women.

26

What condition is characterised by abnormal growth of things in the ovary (ie hair, teelth, bone)?

Teratoma 'dermoid cycts'

27

Characteristics of Ovarian Cancer....

-Often asymptomatic if small
-Usually presents late when already spread
-Poorer prognosis compared with endometrial cancer.

28

What are some pregnancy associated diseases?

-Miscarriage
-Ectopic Pregnancy
-Gestational Trophoblastic Disease

29

What is the name given to the loss of pregnancy before 24 weeks?

Miscarriage.

30

Who is at greater risk of miscarriage?

-Increasing age
-Multiple pregnancies
-Smoking
-Alcohol
-Diabetes
-Connective Tissue Disorders in mother

31

If anyone young woman with abdominal or pelvic pain, what should you always test for???

ECTOPIC PREGNANCY

32

What factors make someone more at risk of Ectopic Pregnancy?

-Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
-Coil
-IVF
-Previous Ectopic Pregnancy
-Pelvic Surgery

33

What is Ectopic Pregnancy?

It's when an extra uterine pregnancy occurs somewhere other than the uterus (usually fallopian tubes). Occurs in 1% of pregnancies.

Present with pain and unilateral lower abdo pain.

34

How do you treat Ectopic Pregnancy?

It's almost always Surgical