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Flashcards in Female Histology Deck (27):

Describe the 3 general histological layers of the ovary:

1. Coverings--Germinal Epithelium cover, and fibrous Tunica Albuginea underneath

2. Cortex--clusters of follicles within stromal interstitial cells

3. Medulla--Fibrous connective tissue, blood velles, nerves, and Hilar cells (secrete testosterone)


If a woman has an anovulatory cycle, will a corpus luteum form?

What hormone to look for to diagnose this condition?

Anovulatory cycle--no ovulation occurs. Bleeding occurs irregularly b/c of no progesterone b/c no corpus luteum is formed.


Look for progesterone in urine and blood. If none, this means there is no corpus luteum and therefore no ovulation.


What determines which secondary follicles will continue maturation to the point of ovulation?

Density of FSH receptors


Mucus consistency, during

1. late stage of follicular phase

2. luteal phase

1. thin, watery--easy for sperm to travel. effect of estrogen.

2. thick--mucus plug. effect of progesterone


Tunica albuginea

Thin layer of fibrous, collagenous tissue that surrounds the ovary. It is covered by the germinal epithelium.


1. what hormone signal causes primordial follicle to begin development?

2. what hormone signal for primary to secondary/antral follicle?

1. unknown. but FSH independent

2. FSH


What are the 3 major functions of the female repro system? What organs contribute to each?

1. production of female gamete (ovary)

2. production of female sex hormones (ovary)

3. reception of male gamete (vulva, vagina, uterus, oviduct)


What's the fate of most follicles in the ovary?


Of 400,000 primordial follicles at puberty, only about 450 participate in ovulation. The rest degenerate with no scar.


Corpus luteum's fate

1. if oocyte not fertilized

2. fertilization occurs

1. degenerates into Corpus Albicans b/c loss of LH stimulation. (may leave small scar)

2. hCG (similar to LH) from blastocyst at Day 7 'rescues' corpus luteum, which continues to secrete estrogen and progesterone


Name the follicle stages from primordial follicle to mature follicle.

1. primordial follicle

2. primary follicle

3. secondary (antral) follicle

4 mature (Graafian) follicle



-divided into what 2 histological zones and why?

1. Basal zone (inner 1/3)--does not slough off during menstruation

-supplied by Straight Arteries

2.Functional zone (outer 2/3)--this grows during menstruatio and sloughs off

-supplied by Spiral Arteries


What are the major histological features of the external genitalia:

1. clitoris

2. labia minora

3. vestibule

4. labia majora

1. 2 bodies of erectile tissue, similar to penis

2. Rich vasculature, abundant nerve endings, sebaceous glands. No hair or fat tissue.

3. The vagina, urethra, and Bartholin's glands (secrete mucus) open into the vestibule

4. Hair, adipose tissue, smooth muscle, sebaceous glands


Describe the 3 layers of the oviduct

1. outer Serosa, continuous with mesosalpinx

2. Muscularis--inner circular and outer longitudinal lyaers of smooth m

3. Mucosa--simple cuboidal epithelium. Some are ciliated to propel egg.


Describe the 3 histological layers of the vagina

1. Mucosa--nonkeratinized stratified squamous. no glands.

2. Muscularis--smooth m arranged in indistinct circular and longitudinal layers.

3. Adventitia--fibroelastic tissue, high innervated


How do these hormones affect the myometrium:

1. estrogen

2. progesterone

3. relaxin

4. oxytocin

Myometrium: smooth muscle.

1. estrogen: smooth muscle proliferation during pregnancy

2, 3. progesterone and relaxin: inhibit smooth muscle contraction

4. oxytocin: simulate smooth muscle contraction (for birth)


What happens to follicle cells and theca cells after ovulation?

Formation of corpus luteum.

Produces progesterone and estrogen.


Germinal epithelium

-what is it

-what type of epithelium

Cuboidal epithelium that covers the ovary. Continous with epithelium of mesovarium.


During follicular phase of menstruation, what hormone does that Dominant follicle secrete? and why

Inhibin B.

This acts on hypothalamus/pituitary to reduce FSH production to limit growth of other follicles b/c there's already 1 dominant follicle to progress to ovulation.


Straight vs Spiral arteries

Straight: supply the Basal zone of myometrium

Spiral: supply Functional zone of myometrium. Spiral arteries degenerate during menstruation, leading to ischemia and sloughing off of Functional zone.


What are the 3 layers of the uterine wall?

1. perimetrium--serosa

2. myometrium--smooth m

3. endometrium--simple columnar epithelium


Cervical Endometrium

-desribe histologic features

Divided into:

1. exocervix--stratified squamous

2. endocervix--simple columnar

-Transformation zone--boundary between both


Hilar cells


-cells located near the hilum of the ovary

-similar to Leydig cells; secrete Testosterone


Corpus luteum:

1. what hormone is responsible for maintaining it

2. what hormones does it secrete

1. continued presence of LH

2. progesterone, estrogen (from the granulosa and theca cells)


Describe meiosis stages and timeline of the female gamete, from oogonia to fertilized ovum.

1. Oogonia--fetal life

2. Primary oocyte (arrested at meiosis 1 at birth)

3. secondary oocyte (completes meoisis 1 at ovulation, arrested at meiosis 2)

4. fertilized ovum (completes meiosis 2 when fertilized by sperm)


Describe the type of epithelium:

1. vagina

2. ectocervix

3. endocervix

4. uterus

5. fallopian tube

6. ovary, outer surface

1. stratified squamous, nonkeratinized

2. stratified squamous, nonkeratinized

3. simple columnar

4. simple columnar, with tubular glands

5. simple columnar, with many ciliated and a few peg (secretory) cells

6. simple cuboidal (Germinal Epithelium)


In the pregnant woman's uterus, what pituitary hormone directly acts on the myometrium?

Oxytocin stimulates it


Uterine tube is divided into what sections? (4)

starting from uterus:

1. Interstitial part

2. Isthmus

3. Ampulla

4. Infundibulum