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Flashcards in Female Repo Deck (20)
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Dysmenorrhea: Treatment

Relief of symptoms
Diet, exercise, relaxation
Reduce salt intake
Restrict cafeeine
Medications: NSAIDs


Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding: Treatment

• H&P
• Abdominal and pelvic exam
• Focus on treating underlying disease
• Diagnostic studies—hormone levels • Pelvic ultrasound
• Laparoscopy


Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding: Treatment

– Oral contraceptives, IUD,
– Iron preparations
Surgery –D&C
–Endometrial ablation
–Uterine balloon heat therapy


Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding: Nursing Diagnosis

• Ineffective Coping r/t excessive, frequent or painful menstruation
• Sexual Dysfunction r/t excessive, frequent or painful menstruation
• Disturbed body image r/t perceived loss of femininity


Pelvic Inflammatory Disorder (PID)

Fallopian tubes, ovaries, uterus, and cervix
–Neisseria gonorrhoeae
–Chlamydia trachomatis
Major cause of female infertility



Diagnosis and treatment
Assess for risk
– Endocervical secretion cultures
– Surgery
– Medications
Treat infection


Cancers of the Reproductive System Nursing Management

Nursing assessment:
– Assess for leukorrhea, irregular vaginal bleeding, vaginal discharge, increase in abdominal pain & pressure, bowel and bladder dysfunction, vulvar itching and burning, bleeding between periods
– Pap smear—cervical cancer
– Colposcopy
– Biopsy
Uterine tissue


Cervical Cancer

Early detection and intervention lead to
decreased incidence and death
Related to infection of the cervix with HPV
Focus on prevention and reduction with vaccination:
‐ Gardisil


Cervical Cancer

Treatment decisions for cervical cancer are based on:
•the size of the tumour
•the stage of the cancer
•fertility status
•the woman's overall health


Cervical Cancer: Collaborative Care

Treatment options:
– Conization
– Laser treatment
– Cautery & cryosurgery
– Invasive cancer requires surgery, radiation
– Hysterectomy
– Pelvic exenteration


Ovarian Cancer

Medical treatment
–Depends on the staging of the tumor
–CA125 tumor marker for ovarian cancer
–Transvaginal ultrasound
– Laparoscopy


Malignant Tumors of Reproductive
Organs: Nursing Diagnosis

• Anxiety r/t threat of a malignancy and lack of knowledge about the disease process and prognosis
•Acute pain r/t pressure secondary to enlarging tumour
•Disturbed body image r/t loss of body part and loss of
good health
•Ineffective sexuality patterns r/t physiological limitations and fatigue
•Ineffective breathing pattern r/t presence of ascites and effusions
•Grieving r/t poor prognosis of advanced disease


Breast Cancer

Assess for risk:
•a strong family history of breast cancer
•certain gene mutations, such as the BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation
•a personal history of lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS), ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), invasive breast cancer or atypical hyperplasia
•dense breast tissue
•received radiation therapy to the breast or chest


Breast Cancer

• Breast Cancer Screening
– Clinical breast exam
– Self breast exam
– Mammography


Breast Cancer – Diagnostic Tests

• Diagnosticmammography
• Ultrasonography
• Cytologicexam
• Tissuebiopsy
– Fine needle aspiration
– Core needle biopsy
– Excisional biopsy


Breast Cancer

• Signsandsymptoms
– Painless breast tissue thickening or lump
– Late symptoms include dimpling of the skin, nipple discharge, nipple or skin retraction, edema, dilated blood vessels, ulceration, and hemorrhage
– Staging: the tumor‐node‐metastasis classification determines the treatment options


Breast Cancer Treatment

– Critical factor determined—whether the cancer cells are estrogen receptors or nonreceptors
• Tamoxifen: selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) prescribed for the estrogen receptors
– Chemotherapy, hormone therapy, radiation therapy, biologic therapy, or a combination of these may be employed before, during, or after surgery
• Prognosis
– When cancer is confined to the breast, the 5‐year relative survival rate is 96.8%; cancer spread to surrounding tissue, 5‐year rate is 75.9%; disease has metastasized, the rate is 20.6%


Breast Cancer Treatment

• Surgery
– Breast conserving
– Mastectomy, lumpectomy
– Breast reconstruction
• Metastatic breast cancer treatment
• Palliation
• Extending life
• Ensuring comfort


Breast Cancer: Nursing Care

– Postoperative exercises
– Healing of surgical site:
– Routine surgical care
– Drain & wound care
– Emotional support
– Balanced diet
– Prosthesis


Breast Cancer: Nursing Care

• Risk for Infection r/t presence of drains, effects of chemotherapy, surgery
• Risk for Injury r/t lymph node dissection •Decisional conflict r/t lack of knowledge about
treatment options and their effects
•Fear, anxiety, or both r/t diagnosis of breast cancer
•Disturbed body image r/t anticipated physical and emotional effects of treatment modalities
• Anticipatory Grieving r/t anticipated diagnosis