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Flashcards in Female Repro Deck (44):

primordial ____ _____ arise from embryonic ____ _____ and migrate to developing _____

primordial germ cells arise from embryonic yolk sac and migrate to developing gonad


mitosis of primordial germ cells form ____

_____ transforms to _____

mitosis of primordial germ cells form oogonia

oogonia transforms to primary oocyte


all ____ ____ are formed before birth and are arrested at _____ until _____

all primary oocytes are formed before birth and are arrested at prophase of meiosis I until puberty


describe a primordial follicle

oocyte is surrounded by a ________

the oocyte is called primary oocyte and is arrested in ______

  • contains primary oocytes
  • most numerous of the follicles in the cortex
  • oocyte is surrounded by a single layer of squamous cells
  • the oocyte is called primary oocyte and is arrested in prophase of meiosis I


identify slide

epi surrounding it?

what stage is primary oocyte at?

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primordial follicles

simple squamous

prophase I


describe a primary follicle

filopodia of _____ and microvilli of _____ establish contacct through ______

  • follicular cells enlarge and form a single layer of cuboidal cells around the oocyte (unimlaminar)
  • a layer of glycoprotein (zona pellucida) is secreted around the oocyte
  • filopodia of follicular cells and microvilli of oocyte establish contact through gap junctions


describe a multilaminar primary follicle

what are the 2 zones?

  • mitotic division of follicular cells results in many layers of granulosa cells
    • contains receptors for FSH and secrete aromatase, an enzyme that converts androstenedione to estrogen
  • connective tissue outside form 2 distinct zones:
    • theca interna: close to basement membrane (have receptors for LH)
      • produce androstenedione (estrogen precursor)
    • theca externa: continuous with stroma


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primary follicle, unilaminar


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primary follicle, unilaminar


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multilaminar cell


describe secondary follicle

  • appearance of antrum (fluid filled cavity with liquor folliculi, which contains hormone-rich fluid secreted by granulosa cells)
  • oocyte is surrounded by several layers of granulosa cells 
  • corona radiata: 1-2 layers of granulosa cells around oocyte
  • cumulus oophorus: oocyte rests on a small hill of granulosa cells
  • secretes oocyte maturation inhibitor to prevent further enlargement 


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describe Graafian follicle

  • continued maturation and enlargement of secondary follicle, and becomes Graafian follicle (mature follicle)
  • thickness of granulosa cells decrease
  • single large antrum


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describe ovulation

surge of ______

just prior to ovulation, primary oocytes complete ________ and become ______ and release _____ (contained within ______)

secondary oocyte enters ______ and is arrested _____ (continues if ______)

the secondary oocyte and surrounding _____ are ______ of ovary at ovulation

  • surge of LH
  • just prior to ovulation, primary oocytes complete first meiotic division and become secondary oocyte and releases first polar body (contained within the most mature Graafian follicle)
  • secondary oocyte enters meiosis II and is arrested metaphase (continues if fertilized)
  • the secondary oocyte and surrounding granulosa cells (corona radiata) are released from surface of ovary at ovulation


describe the corpus luteum

  • following ovulation, granulosa cells and theca interna cells of the Graafian follicle now rearrange to form the corpus luteum
  • if released ovum is fertilized, it becomes corpus luteum of pregnancy (it functions for 4-5 months of pregnancy for maintenance of endometrium)
  • in absence of fertilization, it becomes corpus luteum of menstruation
  • CL produce progesterone and inhibit pituitary LH and FSH preventing development and ovulation of other follicles 


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describe the cells within the corpus luteum

  • granulosa lutein cells
    • large, round cells with central nucleus
    • secrete progesterone
  • theca lutein cells
    • theca interna cells retain their linear characteristics
    • interspersed between the granulosa lutein cells
    • secrete progesterone and androgens


describe image

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  • corpus albicans:
    • the regressed form of the corpus luteum. As the corpus luteum is being broken down by macrophages, fibroblasts lay down type I collagen, forming the corpus albicans.
      • leaves white scar in ovary

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describe the 2 cells of the fallopian tubes/oviduct

  • ciliated simple columnar epithelial cells: most numerous at infundibulum (fimbria) and ampulla 
    • the ciliated cells keep the fluids secreted by the peg cells in motion and help move the oocyte
  • secretory cells (aka peg cells): nonciliated and wedged in between the ciliated cells
    • secrete nutritive material for ovum


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describe the myometrium

  • interlacing bands of smooth muscle fibers that contract under the influence of oxytocin at birth
  • undergo hyperplasia and hypertrophy during pregnancy
  • collagen is produced during pregnancy and is degraded by enzmyes


describe the endometrium and the 2 layers and their blood supply

  • function region: changes dramatically during the course of each cycle; lost if pregnancy does not occur (menstrual debris)
    • supplied by the spiral arteries
  • basal region: close to the myometrium and is retained during menstruation
    • provide the stem cells for the functional region for the next cycle
    • supplied by the straight arteries


describe the proliferative phase

  • proliferative phase aka follicular phase aka estrogen phase
  • this phase follows menstruation 
  • lasts from day 5 to 14 of the cycle
  • under influence of ovarian estrogen, glands proliferate from stratum basale
  • stroma also proliferates and eventually endometrium thickens
  • epithelial cells of the glands accumulate glycogen


describe the secretory phase

  • secretory phase aka luteal phase aka progesterone phase
    • starts after ovulation
    • spiral artery and glands continue development under influence of progesterone
    • glands become elongated, coiled and dilated
    • endometrium attains greatest height


describe the 2 phases of secretory phase

  • early secretory phase:
    • glands are slightly elongated and coiled
  • late secretory phase:
    • glands are elongated, coiled and dilated with a saw-toothed appearance



contrast the 2 images

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image 1 = early secretory

image 2= late secretory


describe the menstrual phase of endometrium

  • spiral arteries thrive under progesterone influence
  • withdrawal of progesterone around day 28 causes ischemia and necrosis
  • functional layer sheds -> menstruation
  • basal region/straight arteries remains intact


contrast the endocervix and ectocervix

  • endocervix: mucous membrane lining the cervical canal
    • lined by simple columnar epi
    • ducts from glands can become occluded and create Nabothian cysts
  • ectocervix: cervix extending into the vagina
    • lined by stratified squamous non-keratinized epi. 


describe the transformation zone

  • squamo-columnar junction in the cervix where pap smears are done
    • all precancerous cervical lesions develop from here


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describe the vagina during the follicular phase

  • during follicular phase of menstrual cycle, the epithelial cells of the vagina store glycogen
    • glycogen is released during shedding of cells
  • glycogen is converted by lactobacillus acidophillus (normal resident) into lactic acid to create an acidic pH
    • this prevents growth of foreign pathogens
    • antibiotics can kill this bacteria causing vaginal infxns


describe the function of the placenta and what it produces in early stages

  • exchange of gases, nutrients, waste between fetus + mother
  • early stages it proudces hCG
  • 2 components:
    • fetal component
    • maternal component


describe the 2 components of the placenta

  • maternal part: decidual basali of the endometrium
  • fetal portion: close to amnion and lined by simple squamous cells
  • anchoring villi arise from the chorionic plate and extend to the uterine wall and attach to the decidua basalis


describe the tertiary chorionic villus

  • outer synctiotrophoblast layer of basophilic cells that secrete hCG 
  • inner layer = inner cytotrophoblast
  • basal lamina separates the epithelium from loose CT core (mesoderm)


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tertiary chorionic villi

  • outer arrow = synctiotrophoblast that secrete hCG
  • inner arrow = inner cytotrophoblast


describe inactive mammary glands

  • ducts are lined by simple cuboidal epithelium
    • within ducts is loose CT since cells > fibers 
  • in between lobules is dense irregular CT (since fibers >cells)


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inactive mammary gland

interlobular CT = dense irregular (fiber > cells)

interlobar CT = loose (cells > fiber)


describe influence of prolactin on mammary glands

  • prolactin induces alveolar cells to secrete into the alveoli:
    • lipids (secreted in apocrine fashion)
    • proteins (secreted in merocrine fashion)
    • antibodies (IgA) 


describe myoepithelial cells

  • oxytocin stimulates myoepithelial cells to contract upon suckling
    • contractions of the myoepithelial cells force milk from the alveoli into the duct system


describe the cells 

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