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Flashcards in ER Deck (36):
1

Origin of posterior pituitary

Neuroectoderm

2

Origin of anterior pituitary

Oropharynx

3

Name the 3 parts of the anterior pituitary

  1. Pars tuberalis (surrounds infundibulum)
  2. Pars distalis (cellular portion)
  3. Pars intermedia (remnant of Rathke's pouch)

4

Name the acidophils in the pars distalis

  1. Somtatotrope: produce GH, inhibited by somatostatin
  2. Mammotrope: produce prolactin, inhibited by dopamine produced by the hypothalamus

5

Name the basophils of the pars distalis

B FLAT

  1. Gonadotropes: produce FSH and LH
  2. Corticotropes: produce ACTH
  3. Thyrotropes: produce TSH

6

Describe the pars intermedia

  • associated with cells producing MSH (melanocytes stimulating hormone)
  • remnants of Rathke's pouch
  • lined by basophilic cuboidal cells

7

Describe hormones in the posterior pituitary

  • hormones are produced in nuclei located in the hypothalamus and are transported along the hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract and are stored in axonal dilations called HERRING BODIES

8

Name the nuclei of the hypothalamus

  • paraventricular nucleus produces oxytocin
  • supraoptic nucleus produces ADH

9

Describe pituicyte

  • located in the pars nervosa of the hypophysis
  • they are glial cells containing GFAP
  • they surround the axons of the herring bodies and act as supporting cells

10

Describe the origin of cortex and medulla and what they are stimulated by

  • Cortex = mesoderm, stimulated by ACTH produced by the basophils in the AP (except z. glomerulosa)
  • Medulla = neural crest, stimulated by sympathetic nerves

11

Describe the 3 layers of the adrenal cortex

  • 1. Zona glomerulosa: produces aldosterone and is stimulated by AGII
  • 2. Zona fasiculata: produces cortisol and is stimulated by ACTH
  • 3. Zona reticularis: produces androgens, stimulated by ACTH

12

Describe spongiocytes

  • located in z. fasiculata
    • this is why fasiculata looks pale; lipids washed away
  • well developed smooth ER because of steroid production
  • mitochondria with tubular cristae
  • cells exhibit cluster of lipid droplets

13

Describe chromaffin cells

- modified post ganglionic sympathetic neurons - secrete their products (adrenaline and noradrenaline; catecholamines) into fenestrated capillaries - chromogranins are proteins that bind to the catecholamines so they don't get released - affinity for chromium salts

14

Describe the cell types of the pancreas

- alpha cells: secrete glucagon (peripheral location) - beta cells: secrete insulin (centrally located) - delta cells: secrete gastrin and somatostatin - F-cells: secrete pancreatic polypeptides

15

Describe thyroid follicles

1. Epithelium = simple cuboidal 2. Colloid - thyroglobulin (inactive hormone) 3. Iodine storage in thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) regulates metabolic activity

16

Describe parafollicular cells

- alongside thyroid epithelium or as cluster of cells - secretes calcitonin: lowers blood calcium by suppressing osteoclast activity

17

Describe cells of the parathyroid gland

1. Chief cells: produce PTH -increases blood calcium levels -decreases blood phosphate levels 2. Oxyphill cells: large acidophilic cells

18

Describe the pineal gland

1. Consists of melatonin secreting pinealocytes 2. Pineal gland is surrounded by the pia matter 3. Contains astrocytes

19

Describe Conn's disease

- adrenal carcinoma - high serum aldosterone; leads to hypertension and low renin levels

20

Cushing's syndrome vs Addison's disease

-Cushing = hypersecretion of ACTH -Addisons = hyposecretion

21

Describe a pheochromocytoma

-tumor = chromaffinoma - patients have hypertension -increased production of epinephrine and norepinephrine

22

Describe hyperthyroidism

-follicles turn from simple cuboidal into high cuboidal

23

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name the cells at the arrows

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