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Flashcards in Male Repro Deck (36):
1

describe the processus vaginalis

  • evagination of peritoneal cavity and membrane

2

describe the testicular transabdominal descent

  • retroperitoneal
  • through inguinal canal

3

describe the tunica vaginalis

  • peritoneal sac
  • remnant of the processus vaginalis

4

describe cryptorchidism

  • condition when testes do not descend into the scrotum

5

describe tunica albuginea

  • 2 layers:
    • outer = thick, dense irregular CT 
    • inner = loose CT 
      • tunica vasculosa with blood vessels
  • extends inward to form speta

6

name the 2 cells populations in seminiferous epithelium

  1. Sertoli cells
  2. spermatogenic cells

7

describe Sertoli cells

  • supporting/sustenacular cells
  • columnar cells
  • tight junctions join adjacent Sertoli cells
    • forms blood-testis barrier
  • secrete inhibin
    • hormone that inhibits FSH secretion
  • secretes androgen binding protein
    • binds testosterone to keep concentration high

8

describe spermatogenic cells

 

  • spermtagonia (2n, 2d) = basal side 
    • stem cells
    • Type A dark and pale
    • Type B
  • primary spermatocytes (2n, 4d)
  • secondary spermatocytes (1n, 2d)
  • spermatids (1n, 1d)
  • spermatazoa (1n, 1d) = luminal side

9

describe 4 phases of spermiogenesis

  1. Golgi phase
    • formation of acrosomal vesicle
    • assembly of microtubule axoneme flagellum (9+2)
  2. Cap phase
    • formation of acrosomal cap
  3. Acrosome phase
    • spermatid reorients and head becomes embedded in the Sertoli cell
    • Formation of middle piece with mitochondria 
  4. Maturation phase
    • forms mature spermatazoa
    • loss of intracellular bridges
    • spermatids released from Sertoli cells into lumen

10

describe the parts of the spermatazoa

  • head
    • acrosomal cap with acrosomal enzymes
      • essential for penetration of zona pelucida in egg
    • nucleus has 23 condensed chromosomes
  • tail (flagellum)
    • neck
    • middle piece which contains mitochondria
    • principal piece
    • end piece

11

describe the location of Leydig cells

  • interstitial cells that are located in spaces between adjacent seminiferous tubules

12

name characteristics of Leydig cells

  • large, eosinophillic cells
  • small, round nucleus
  • numerous lipid droplets (producing steroid -> testosterone)
    • large amount of sER
  • Reinke crystals

13

describe function of Leydig cells

  • secrete testosterone
    • embryo: essential for development of male gonads
    • puberty:
      • initiation of spermatogenesis, accessory gland secretion and secondary sex characteristics
    • adult: maintenance 

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17

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EM of Leydig cell

lipid droplets and extensive sER

18

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Reinke crystal within a Leydig cell

19

contrast the intratesticular ducts from excurrent ducts

  • intratesticular
    • seminiferous tubules
    • straight tubules (tubuli recti)
    • rete testis
  • excurrent ducts 
    • efferent ductules 
    • epididymis
    • ductus deferens (vas deferens)
    • ejaculatory ducts

20

describe tubuli recti and rete testis

  • tubuli recti aka straight tubules = short terminal portion of seminiferous tubule
    • only contains Sertoli cells changing to simple cuboidal
  • rete testis
    • network of channels
    • simple cuboidal to low columnar

21

describe efferent ductules

  • connects rete testis to epididymis
  • pseudostratified columnar epi. -- looks scalloped/jagged
    • tall cells with cilia
    • short cells with microvilli
    • basal stem cells
  • function is to transport sperm 

22

describe the epididymis

  • secretion of GPC 
  • storage and maturation of sperm (12 days)
  • role in decapacitation
    • reversibly inhibits fertilizing ability of sperm; recapcitated in female repro. tract
  • pseudostratified epi.
    • principal cells (tall columnar cells w/ stereocilia)
    • basal cells (stem cells)

23

describe the ductus deferens

  • pseudostratified epithelium 
  • 3 muscular layers
    • inner
    • middle 
    • outer

24

describe the path of seminal vesicles and function

  • paired glands posterior to bladder
    • ducts joins ampulla of ductus deferens to form ejaculatory duct
  • secrete a whitish yellow, alkaline, viscous fluid (60% of semen volume)
    • high in fructose for ATP production

25

describe secretion of prostate

  • citric acid
    • ATP production
  • prostate-specific antigen (PSA)
    • used to check for health of prostate (cancer)
  • prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP)
    • also used to check for health of prostate)
  • seminalplasmin
    • antibiotic
  • fibrolysin
    • liquefies semen
  • produces about 25% of volume of semen

26

describe the 4 zones of the prostate

  • central zone
    • surrounds ejaculatory ducts
    • 25% glandular tissue
  • peripheral zone
    • surrounds central
    • 70% glandular
    • most prostatic carcinomas arise from peripheral
  • transition zone
    • surrounds prostatic urethra 
    • 5% glandular
    • benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)
  • periurethral zone
    • mucosal and submucosal gland 

27

the prostate converts ____ to _____

the prostate converts testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT)

28

how to tell apart prostate from seminal vesicles?

prostate has round, circular concretions

29

describe the bulbourethral glands (Cowper's glands)

  • paired glands inferior to prostate on either side of the membranous urethra
    • ducts open into the penile (spongy) urethra
  • secrete clear, mucus-like fluid into the penile urethra
    • simple columnar epithelium
      • clear mucus secretion

30

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efferent ductules; jagged/scalloped epithelium

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epididymis

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epididymis

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33

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ductus deferens (vas deferens)

34

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seminal vesicle

35

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prostate gland--can see the concretions

36

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bulbourethral glands; contain glandular epithelium (simple columnar) so that they can secrete a clear, mucus secretion which is the preseminal fluid