Flashcards in Female Reproductive System Deck (37)
Name the internal organs of the female reproductive system ...
the ovaries, the oviducts (fallopian or uterine tubes), the uterus, and the vagina
What are the external genitalia collectively known as ?
Functions of the female reproductive system
Be the site of development of a baby after fertilization of egg
Describe the ovaries and their location
The ovaries are the main reproductive organ in females. The ovaries are two glands that are almond shaped. One ovary is on each side of the uterus, below the uterine tubes.
How are the ovaries held in place ?
The suspensory, ovarian and broad ligaments....The suspensory ligaments attach the ovaries to the pelvis wall. The ovarian ligaments attach the ovaries to the uterus. The broad ligaments hold the ovaries in place in the pelvis
What is ovulation?
The release of a mature egg from an ovary which occurs about every 28 days.
What is present inside each ovary?
Ovarian follicles which each hold an immature egg
What is the corpus luteum?
The ovarian follicle becomes the corpus luteum after ovulation and helps maintain the pregnancy if an egg is fertilized. If not, it disintegrates.
What are the structures of the duct system in the female reproductive system?
The duct system includes the oviducts, uterus, and vagina.
Oviducts are also known by what other names...
Fallopian tubes or Uterine Tubes
Describe the fallopian tubes including their layers and sections
The oviducts, also called uterine or fallopian tubes, extend from the ovaries to the uterus. Each tube has three sections: infundibulum, ampulla and isthmus and three coats: the outer serous coat, the middle muscular coat, and an inner mucosa coat.
What are the functions of the fallopian tubes ?
The fallopian tube functions include capturing an egg from the ovary at the time of ovulation; nourishing the fertilized egg or zygote during its early cell divisions; and delivering the developing embryo into the uterine cavity when it is time for implantation. The different parts of the fallopian tube correspond to these various functions.
What are the fimbriae ?
Since the fallopian tubes are not connected to the ovaries, they have fingerlike projections called fimbriae on the infundibulum end of the fallopian tubes that help capture the released egg.
How does an an egg get into the fallopian tubes?
When an egg (oocyte) bursts from follicle within an ovary during ovulation, it is most often swept into an oviduct by the combined action of the fimbriae and the beating of the cilia that line the oviducts.
What happens when the egg reaches the fallopian tube?
Through the action of fimbriae and cila, the egg is captured and quickly moved into the ampulla region of the tube where it is most often fertilized. The mucosa layer of the ampulla provides nourishing fluid that allows repeated cell divisions. Over the next several days, the combination of muscular contractions and cilia move the egg through the isthmus toward the uterus. When the dividing egg (zygote) reaches the stage (blastocyst) where the outer membrane dissolves, it is delivered into the uterus.
Describe the uterus .......
The uterus is a hollow, thick walled muscular organ shaped like an inverted pear. It connects with the fallopian tubes and the vagina and is situated in a forward-tilted position between the rectum and the bladder.
What are the three areas of the uterus?
Fundus is the most superior portion.
Body is the main portion
Cervix is the most inferior portion
What are the three layers of the uterus ?
the outer serous perimetrium, the middle muscular myometrium and the inner glandular endometrium
How is the uterus suspended in place ?
It is suspended in the pelvis by ligaments. the broad ligaments which attach the uterus to the walls and floor of the pelvis, uterosacral ligament which attaches the back of the uterus to the front of the sacrum and the round ligament which attaches to the uterus anteriorly.
What section of the uterus can be measured and for what purpose?
The height of the fundus can be measured from the top of the pubic bone during prepnancy to provide growth rates and rudimentary indications of abnormalities (breech presentaion or twins)
What special purpose does the body of the uterus have?
The body receives the fertilized ovum where it becomes implanted in the endometrium to receive nourishment and develop from ovum to embryo to fetus and gestate until childbirth.
What functions does the cervix have ?
The cervix connects the uterus to the vagina and changes in size and texture. Just prior to ovulation, the cervix swells, softens and secretes mucus allowing sperm better access to and viability within the uterus. When a woman becomes pregnant a mucus plug develops in the cervix and prevents any bacteria or pathogens from entering the uterus, thus protecting the health of the developing fetus. A firm, closed cervix also holds the developing fetus in the uterus until it reaches full term.
How does the uterus accomodate a growing fetus and delivery of a baby?
The muscular myometrium expands during pregnancy to hold the growing fetus while contacting during labor to push the baby out of the uterus.
What layer of the uterus is shed monthly ? What is this layers specific function?
The inner endometrium layer, where the embryo completes development, is shed monthly (~28 days) if the female is not pregnant which is known as menstruation or menses.
What is menstruation ?
The monthly shedding of the inner endometrium layer of the uterus if the female is not pregnant.
What structures make up the external genitalia ?
mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, urethral and vaginal orifices, and the greater vestibular glands.
What are the functions of the vagina ?
Receive sperm from the male
Serve as the birth canal
Serve as the outlet for menstrual blood
Describe the structure of the vagina ?
A small opening at the cervix leads to the vaginal canal. The vagina is an elastic muscular tube which leads from the uterus to the outside of the body. The vaginal wall consists of an inner tissue layer, intermediate muscle layer and outer tissue layer. The wetness and moisture of the vaginal surface is achieved by mucous from the cervix. The outer layer is made of elastic fibers, blood vessels, lymph vessels and nerves. The elastic fibers give the vaginal wall its strength and elasticity. The mucosal lining of the vagina lies in folds and can extend which is especially important when the vagina serves as the birth canal and it also can facilitate intercourse.
Functions of the structures of the external genitalia ...
- The mons pubis is a fat pad located in front of the pubic symphysis and is covered with hair after puberty. - The labia majora is an outer fold of skin that is located posterior to the mons pubis
- the labia minora are a second set of skin folds surrounded by the labia majora.
-At the anterior end of the labia majora is the clitoris the main source of sensations during sexual activity.
- The orifices or openings for the urethra and vagina are located inside the labia minora. The urethral orifice is anterior to the vaginal orifice.
-The greater vestibular glands are located on the edges of the vagina and release secretions that help lubricate the area for copulation.