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Flashcards in Female Reproductive System Deck (20)
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1

What is the X-Chromosome?

-carries a lot of genetic information
-mutations here cause sex-linked disorders which are usually recessively inherited so females express these disorders far less than males

2

Ovaries

-produce estrogen and progesterone
-contain follicles that contain/nourish/protect immature ova

3

Peritoneal Sac

contains an ovulated egg that has yet to be drawn into the fallopian tubes

4

Oogenesis

the production of female gametes

5

All oogonia a woman will ever have are formed during _______ _________.

fetal development

6

Primary Oocytes

-name of oogonia at birth that have already undergone DNA replication
-cells are 2n
-arrested in this form in prophase 1 until menarche

7

What happens to the oocyte during menarche?

one oocyte per month will complete meiosis 1 and become a secondary oocyte and a polar body

8

Secondary Oocytes

-result from completion of meiosis 1
-contains nearly all the cytoplasm
-remains arrested in metaphase 2 unless fertilization occurs

9

What happens when a secondary oocyte is fertilized?

the oocyte completes meiosis 2 and splits into a mature ovum and another polar body via 2nd meiotic division

10

Ovum

-consists of large quantities of cytoplasm and organelles
-contributes almost everything to the zygote including 1/2 of DNA, all of the cytoplasm, organelles (including the mitochondria), RNA and physical space

11

What does sperm contribute to a zygote?

1/2 of DNA

12

Zygote

-formed upon completion of meiosis 2 when the haploid pronuclei of the sperm and ovum join
-diploid

13

Ovaries are derived from the same embryonic structures as the ______.

testes

14

Estrogen

-secreted in response to FSH
-results in development/maintenance of female reproductive system
-initially thickens the endometrium

15

Progesterone

-secreted by the corpus luteum in response to LH
-involved in development/maintenance of endometrium
-by end of first trimester it is secreted by the placenta

16

What are the phases of the menstrual cycle?

1. follicular
2. ovulation
3. luteal
4. menses

17

Follicular phase

-egg develops
-vascularization and glandularization of endometrial lining
-increase FSH
-maintain LH
-immediate decrease then increase estrogen
-decrease progesterone

18

Ovulation

-egg released from follicle into peritoneal cavity
-increase FSH
-large spike in LH
-increase estrogen
-decrease progesterone

19

Luteal phase

-corpus luteum produces progesterone to maintain endometrium
-decrease FSH
-maintain LH
-increase estrogen
-increase progesterone

20

Menses

-shedding of endometrial lining (menstrual bleed)
-decrease FSH
-decrease LH
-decrease estrogen
-decrease progesterone