Male Reproductive System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Male Reproductive System Deck (27)
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1

What is hemizygous?

-one copy of x-chromosome
-what males are
-b/c male only have one x-chromosome copy they are more likely to express a disease-causing allele in the unpaired part of the x-chromosome compared to females

2

What is the Y chromosome?

-contains little genetic information
-contains the SRY chromosome

3

What is SRY?

-sex-determining region Y
-codes for a transcription factor that initiates testis differentiation and formation of male gonads

4

What are testes?

-produces and store sperm
-main source of testosterone
-contain 2 functional components -- seminiferous tubules and interstital cells of leydig

5

Where is sperm produced?

seminiferous tubules

6

What cells nourish sperm?

sertoli cells (located in seminiferous tubules)

7

What do the cells of leydig secrete?

-testosterone
-androgens

8

What is the function of the scrotum?

maintains a temperature 2-4 degrees celsius lower than body temperature

9

What is the epididymis?

-where sperm flagella gain motility
-where sperm are stored until ejaculation

10

What is seminal fluid?

-mixed with sperm
-produced through combined effort by seminal vesicles, prostrate gland, and bulbourethral gland

11

What is the function of seminal vesicles?

contribute fructose to nourish sperm and mildly alkaline properties

12

What is the function of the prostrate gland?

gives sperm mildly alkaline properties so that is can survive the relative acidity of the female reproductive tract

13

What is the function of the bulbourethral gland?

produces fluid that cleans out urine reminants and lubricates urethra during sexual arousal

14

What is semen made of?

sperm and seminal fluid

15

What is the pathway of sperm through the reproductive system?

SEVE(N) UP
1. Seminiferous tubules
2. Epididymis
3. Vas deferens
4. Ejaculatory duct
5. Urethra
6. Penis

16

What is spermatogenesis?

-the formation of haploid sperm through meiosis
-occurs in the seminiferous tubules
-results in 4 functional sperm/spermatogonium

17

Spermatogonia

-diploid sperm cells
-form present before replication (S stage)

18

Primary Spermatocyte

-product after replication (S stage)
-one diploid sperm cell

19

Secondary Spermatocyte

-product after first meiotic division
-two haploid daughter cells

20

Spermatids

-product after second meiotic division
-4 haploid daughter cells

21

Spermatozoa

mature spermatids

22

Timeline of male sexual development

1. Fetal period (9 wks after fertilization - birth): presence of Y chromosome leads to androgen production resulting in male sexual differentiation
2. Infancy and Childhood: low androgen production
3. Puberty: increase in testosterone production by testes, sperm production starts
4. Adulthood: high testosterone levels that decline in old age

23

What is the role of FSH?

stimulates sertoli cells which leads to sperm maturation

24

What is the role of LH?

causes interstitial cells to produce testosterone

25

Describe the head of mature sperm

-contains genetic material
-covered by a cap called the acrosome (derived from golgi apparatus and necessary to penetrate the ovum)
-contains nucleus and plasma membrane

26

Describe the midpiece of mature sperm

filled with mitochondria to generate ATP that is used as the sperm swims to the ovum in the fallopian tubes

27

Describe the tail of mature sperm

flagellum used for motility