Female Reproductive System and Breast Flashcards Preview

Y3 Obs and Gynae Anatomy > Female Reproductive System and Breast > Flashcards

Flashcards in Female Reproductive System and Breast Deck (76)
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1

What is the perineum?

Shallow space between the pelvic diaphragm (levator ani) and the skin

2

List the parts of the female reproductive system in the pelvic cavity

Ovaries
Uterine tubes
Uterus
Superior part of vagina

3

List the parts of the female reproductive system in the perineum

Inferior part of vagina
Perineal muscles
Bartholin's glands
Clitoris
Labia

4

What is the function of the inferior part of the PARIETAL peritoneum?

Floor of peritoneal cavity
Roof over pelvic organs

5

State the two pouches formed by the female periotenum

Vesico-uterine - between bladder and uterus
Recto-uterine - between rectum and bladder (Pouch of Douglas)

6

Where does excessive abnormal fluid from the peritoneal cavity usually collect? How is this managed?

Pouch of Douglas (most inf. part of peritoneal cavity)
Drained via needle passed through posterior fornix of vagina

7

Name and outline the ligaments of the uterus

Broad ligament (double layer of peritoneum containing uterine tubes and proximal round ligament)
Round ligament (embryological remnant)

8

What is the function of the broad ligament of the uterus?

Helps maintain uterus in correct midline position via lateral attachments

9

List the three components of the broad ligament of the uterus, and their associations

Mesosalpinx (uterine tube)
Mesovarian (ovaries)
Mesometrium (uterus)

10

What are they layers of the uterus?

Perimetrium
Myometrium
Endometrium

11

Which layer of the uterus is shed during the menstrual cycle?

Endometrium

12

What is the name for the opening in the center of the ectocervix (passage between vagina and uterus)?

External cervical os

13

What is the name for the opening of the uterus from the cervix?

Internal cervical os

14

Where does implantation normally occur?

Body of uterus

15

Implantation outside the body of the uterus is known as...

Ectopic pregnancy

16

List the layers of support that help to hold the uterus in position

Number of strong ligaments e.g. uterosacral
Endopelvic fascia
Muscles of pelvic floor e.g. levator ani

17

Weakness of the layers of support for the uterus results in what clinical pathology of the female reproductive system?

Uterine prolapse
Movement of the uterus inferiorly

18

What is the most common positions of the uterus?

Anteverted (cervix tipped anteriorly relative to axis of vagina, sits on top of bladder)
Anteflexed (uterus tipped anteriorly relative to axis of cervix)

19

List normal variations that can occur in uterine position

Retroverted (uterus tipped posteriorly relative to axis of vagina)
Retroflexed (uterus tipped posteriorly relative to axis of cervix)

20

Which area of the cervix should be sampled during cervical smear, and is a common site for cervical dysplasia?

Squamo-columnar junction (transformation zone)

21

Outline the route taken by an ovum from ovary to implantation

Ovary
Infundibulum
Ampulla
Isthmus
Uterus

22

What structures present on the infundibulum open into the peritoneal cavity and pick up ovum?

Fimbrae

23

Where does fertilisation normally occur?

Ampulla of the uterine tube

24

What is the clinical term for removal of both uterine tubes and ovaries?

Bilateral salpingophrectomy

25

What is the clinical term for removal of one uterine tube?

Unilateral salpingectomy

26

The uterine tubes provide communication between the genital tract and peritoneal cavity. What is the clinical consequences of this?

PID can cause peritonitis
Ectopic pregnancy can develop in peritoneal cavity

27

What is the function of the ovaries?

Secrete oestrogen and progesterone in response to FSH and LH

28

Where do the ovaries develop?

Located on posterior abdominal wall and descend to the lateral pelvic cavity

29

Ovum are released directly into the periotenal cavity. True/ False?

True
Then picked up by fimbrae

30

The walls of the vagina are normally in contact. Where is the exception to this?

Superiorly where cervix holds them apart forming a fornix