Anatomy of Urinary Incontinence and Prolapse Flashcards Preview

Y3 Obs and Gynae Anatomy > Anatomy of Urinary Incontinence and Prolapse > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy of Urinary Incontinence and Prolapse Deck (46)
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1

The pelvic floor seperates _______ (above) from ________ (below)

Pelvic cavity
Perineum

2

What is the role of the pelvic floor?

Supports pelvic organs
Role in maintaining urinary and faecal continence

3

List the three layers that make up the pelvic floor from deep to superficial

Pelvic diaphragm
Muscles of perineal pouches
Perineal membrane

4

What is the deepest layer of the pelvic floor?

Pelvic diaphragm

5

What does the pelvic diaphragm look like?

A sling

6

Which muscle groups make up the pelvic diaphragm?

Levator ani
Coccygeus

7

What is the name for the anterior gap between the medial borders of the pelvic diaphragm? What is it's role?

Urogenital sinus
Passage for urethra and vagina

8

Name the three parts of the levator ani muscle

Puborectalis
Pubococcygeus
Iliococcygeus

9

What is the role of the levator ani?

Tonically contracted most of the time, relaxes to allow urination and defecation

10

What is the innervation of levator ani?

Pudenal nerve
Nerve to levator ani

11

State the two types of endo-pelvic fascia

Loose areolar connective tissue
Fibrous pelvic ligaments

12

List the main pelvic ligaments providing additional support to pelvic organs

Uterosacral ligament
Transverse cervical (cardinal) ligament
Lateral ligament of bladder
Lateral rectus ligaments

13

Where is the deep perineal pouch?

Lies below the fascia covering inferior pelvic diaphragm
Lies above the perineal membrane

14

What vein lies above the external urethral sphincter in males and females respectively?

Dorsal vein of clitoris/ penis

15

List the contents of the deep perineal pouch in females

Urethra (external urethral sphincter)
Compressor urethrae
Vagina
Dorsal vein of clitoris
Extension of ischioanal fat pads/muscles

16

What is the function of the compressor urethrae muscle?

Wraps anteriorly around the urethra so when it contracts it squeezes the urethra

17

List the contents of the deep perineal pouch in males

Urethra (external urethral sphincter)
Compressor urethrae
Dorsal vein of penis
Deep transverse perineal muscle
Bulbourethral gland
Extension of ischioanal fat pads/muscles

18

Where is the bulbourethral gland located in males?

Posterior and lateral to the membranous portion of the urethra at the base of the penis in the deep perineal pouch

19

Where is the perineal membrane located?

Superficial to the deep perineal pouch

20

Describe the structure of the perineal membrane

Thin sheet of tough, deep fascia

21

Where does the perineal membrane attach laterally? What is the function of this?

To the sides of the pubic arch, closing the urogenital triangle

22

Together with the perineal body, what is the function of the perineal membrane?

Last passive support of the pelvic organs

23

Where is the superficial perineal pouch?

Lies below the perineal membrane

24

List the contents of the superficial perineal pouch in males

Crura ('legs') and bulb of penis
Erectile tissue (corpus spongiousum, corpus cavernosum)
Muscles (bulbospongiosus, ischiocavernosus)
Proximal spongy penile urethra
Superficial transverse perineal muscle
Branches of internal pudenal vessels
Pudenal nerve

25

List the contents of the superficial perineal pouch in females

Crura and clitoris
Paired bulbs of vestibule
Erectile tissue (corpus cavernosum)
Muscles (bulbospongiosus, ischiocavernosus)
Bartholin's glands
Superficial transverse perineal muscle
Branches of internal pudenal vessels
Pudenal nerve

26

Where is Bartholin's gland location in females?

Located slightly posterior and to the left and right of the opening of the vagina in the superficial perineal pouch

27

Describe the layout of the crura and bulb of the genitalia

Bulbs are situated on either side of the vaginal opening or the base of the penis, and crura are 'legs' adjacent to this

28

What is the function of the bulbospongiosus and ischiocavernous muscles?

Contribute to erection by forcing blood towards the erectile tissues

29

What is the importance of the perineal body?

Supports the pelvic floor

30

How does the pelvic floor support pelvic organs?

Actively contracts during coughing, sneezing and vomiting