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Flashcards in Female Reproductive Sytem Deck (157):
1

What are the two main functions of the ovaries?

1. oogenesis (production of gametes)
2. production of steroid hormones estrogen + progesterone

2

what is the function of estrogen

1. promotes growth/maturation of internal and external sex organs
2. responsible for female sex characteristics
3. acts on mammary glands to promote breast development

3

What is the function of progesterone

1. prepares the uterus for pregnancy by promoting changes in endometrium
2. prepares the mammary gland for lactation by promoting the proliferation of lobules

4

what are the ovaries covered by?

1. tunica albudinea (dense collagenous layer)
2. layer of mesothelium (cuboidal/almost squamous)

5

what is the general organization of the ovaries

outer cortex + inner medulla

6

Describe the cortex of the ovaries

outer portion that is beneath the tunica albuginea; it consists of ovarian follicles and derivatives that are embedded in the stroma;

7

what makes up the stroma of the ovaries?

CT with collagen, ground substance, SMC and fibroblast like cells

8

Describe the medulla of the ovaries

central core
has loose CT with blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves

9

is there a distinct boundary between the ovarian cortex and medulla?

NO

10

What is a primordial follicle

the least developed of the ovarian follicles

11

does the early growth of the primordial follicle depend on hormone stimulation

NO

12

what does the primordial follicle contain? (define the layers)

a primary oocyte + a single layer of SQUAMOUS cells (follicular cells) that is surounded by basal lamina, which is surrounded by the stroma of the ovarian cortex

13

what is a primary oocyte

an oocyte that is is arrested in meiosis I at the diplotene stage of the prophase I

14

What does a primary follicle derive from?

primordial cells

15

What distinguishes a primary follicle from a primordial follicle

primordial follicle contains a single layer of simple squamous cells (follicular cells); the primary follicle contains 1 layer a of simple cuboidal (granulosa cells) = unilaminar or many layers of cuboidal cells = multilaminar

16

the Primary oocyte secretes a new layer between it and the granulosa cells called the ______,

zona pellucida

17

What makes up the zona pellucida? how does it stain?

made up of 4 main glycoproteins: ZP-1, ZP-2, ZP-3, ZP-4; and stains eosinophilically

18

What can be found in the ooplasm of the primary oocyte in the primary follicle?

cortical granules

19

what is the function of the cortical granules of the primary follicle? where are they located?

located in the ooplasm of the primary oocyte in the primary follicles; contain proteases that are released if the oocyte is fertilized by sperm (mechanism to block polyspermy)

20

How do the ganulosa cells and the oocyte communicate?

processes from the granulosa cells closest to the zona pellucida extend through it and make contact with microvilli on the oocyte forming GAP JUNCTIONS

21

what is the function of the gap junctions between the granulosa cells and the primary oocytes in the primary follicle?

facilitates the transfer of metabolites from the granulosa cells to the oocyte

22

What are Theca cells?

CT curounding the basal lamina of the primary follicle

23

what is the theca interna? what function does it take on?

innermost layer of the theca cells; it is well vascularized as will take on an endocrine function

24

What is the theca extena?

outer layer of the theca cells; it is less vascularized than the theca interna; it blends with the CT of the stroma of ovarian cortex

25

when does theca development begin?

primary follicle

26

What does the secondary follicle contain?

1. primary oocyte arrested in meiosis I
2. Zona pellucida
3. Antrium

27

what factors are required for growth of the primary follicle to the secondary follicle (growth of granulosa cells)

1. Follicle Stimulating Homong (FSH)
2. Growth factors
3. Calcium

28

what is the antrum? what is it surrounded by? It is characteristic of which follicle?

characteristic of the secondary follicle; it is a fluid-filled space that appears among the granulosa cells

29

What is the secondary follicle completely surrounded by?

Theca interna/ externa

30

What happens to the oocyte from primary to secondary follicle?

it becomes eccentrically located in the follicle in a mound of granulosa cells (cumulus mass/oophorus)

31

what is secreted by the granulosa cells into the antral fluid? what does it cause?

oocyte maturation inhibitor (OMI); it inhibits growth of the oocyte

32

what is the cumulus mass?

mound of granulosa cells that the oocyte migrates into

33

what is the coronoa radiata?

cells of the cumulus oopohorus that immediately surround the oocyte and remain with it at ovulation

34

what is the antrum filled with (be specific)

fluid = "liquour folliculi" composed of mostly HYALURONIC ACID + hormones + growth factors

35

How does the theca interna act as in an endocrine function?

it has LH RECEPTORS that when stimulated, the theca interna synthesizes and secretes ANDOSTENEDIONE (andgrogen) and PROGESTERONE;

the androgens pass through the basal lamina to the granulosa cells

36

What is the function of the granulosa cells?

under the influence of FSH, they convert andostenedione (from theca interna) into ESTRADIOL (main form of estrogen)

37

How does estrogen effect the follicle?

it simulates the granulosa cell proliferation which increases the size of the follicle

38

During the secondary follicular stage, granulosa cells gradually acquire ___ receptors in addition to ____ receptors

LH and FSH

39

What are the defining characteristics of a Graafian Follicle?

large antrium, zona pellucida, DETACHMENT OF OOCYE + CORONA RADIATA FROM CUMULUS MASS

40

what causes the resumption of meiosis I of primary oocytes in mature (Graafian) follicles? what is the result ?

LH surge from anterior pituitary causes resumption of meisosi I of primary oocytes of mature follicles; this results in formation of ONE secondary oocyte and the FIRST polar body

41

describe the secondary oocyte (chromosomes etc)

has 23 chromosomes, each of 2 sister chromatids; halted at the metaphase II stage of Meioisis II

42

What is the DNA content in the first polar body? what happens to it?

has 23 chromosomes, but very little cytoplasm therefore it eventually degenerates

43

Ovulation causes the release of:

1. secondary oovyte
2. granulosa cells from corona radiata
3. granulosa cells of cumulus mass from ovary

ALL OTHER ELEMENTS OF MATURE FOLLICLE REMAIN IN THE OVARY

44

what happens to the oocyte during fertilization?

membranes of the secondary oocyte and the sperm fuse and THEN the secondary oocyte completes meiosis II into a TRUE HAPLOID CELL; the fertilized ovum (w/ male + female pronucleus) = embryo

45

What marks the completion of meiosis II?

formatinon of an ovum + second polar body

46

what happens to the 2nd polar body

nonfunctional

47

How does the corpus luteum form?

after ovulation, the theca + granulosa cells remaining in the ovary collapse to become corpus luteum

48

what happens to the antrum of the follicle?

it becomes the lumen of corpus luteum, which is later replaced by a blood clot and then by CT

49

what happens to the granulosa / theca cells in the corpus luteum?

become granulosa lutein cells (large + eosinophilic) and theca lutein cells (smaller, less cytoplasm, more basophilic); the theca lutein cells forms stands among the granulosa lutein cells

** note: the granulosa cells at this stage have LH receptors, so they undergo luteinization (become filled with lipid) and produce mainly progesterone and some estrogen

50

what is the result of the increased progresterone secretion from the granulosa cells in the corpus luteum?

stimulates growth and secretory activity of endometrium to prepare it for implantation in the event of fertilization

51

What happens to the corpus luteum if fertilization DOES take place?

it continues to grow and produce progesterone/estrogen under the stimulation of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) from the placenta

52

what happens to the corpus luteum if fertilization DOES NOT take place?

it regresses to the corpus albicans and CT eventually replaces the degenerating luteal cells, producing an irregular, highly folded, glossy (hyalinized) eosinophilic form with the only of the few cells present being macrophages

53

what is atresia with respect to follicle growth?

degeneration of follicles because many primary follicles begin to develop but only one follicle completes the development per uterine cycle

54

What are atretic follicles?

degenerating follicles

55

what changes are associated with atretic follicles?

1. granulosa cell apoptosis
2. invasion of granulosa cell layer by neutrophils + macrophages
3. granulosa cells slough into antrum
4. theca interna cells hypertrophy
5. follicle collapses as degeneration continues
6. CT invades follicle cavity

56

How can you ID the corpus albicans (corpus luteum CT remainder) from the Atretic Follicle?

The atretic follicle is smaller, thinner, and HAS A ZONA PELLUCIDA PRESENT

57

what is the function of the uterine tube?

to receive the ovum following ovulation and transport it to the uterus, and provide the proper environment for fertilization,

58

What is the infundibulum of the uterine tube?

its the funnel shaped segment adjacent to the ovary

59

where are fimbrae found?

they extend from the infundibulum of the uterine tube towards to ovary

60

what is the function of fimbrae?

at ovulation, they move close to the ovary surface and direct the oocyte into the uterine tube

61

where does fertilization typically take place?

in the ampulla of the uterine tube

62

what is the longest segment of the uterine tube?

the ampulla

63

what is the isthmus of the uterine tube?

the narrow region of the uterine tube, near the uterine wall

64

what part of the uterine tube opens up into the cavity of the uterus?

intramural segment

65

Describe the epithelium of the uterine tube wall

simple columnar with ciliated columnar cells and non-ciliated secretory cells (peg cells) + an underlying LP

66

Where are there more mucosal folds of the uterine tube?

in the ampulla compared to the isthmus/intramural segment

67

What happens to the epithelium cell of the uterine tube during the uterine cycle?

they undergo cyclic hypertrophy during the follicular phase and atrophy during the luteal phase in response to changes in estrogen levels

68

what effect does estrogen have on the epithelial cells of the uterine wall? progesterone?

estrogen stimulates ciliogenesis
progesterone stimulates increase number of secretory (peg) cells)

69

How does the epithelium of the uterine tube differ at ovulation vs. menstruation?

At ovulation the epithelium = max height
At menstruation the epithelium = 1/2 max height

70

where are peg cells located? what do they secrete?

located in the epithelium (mucosa) of the uterine tube wall; they secrete nutrients for spermatozoa and ova

71

Describe the muscularis layer of the uterine tube wall

inner circular + outer longitudinal SMC

72

What facilitates movement of the ovum towards the uterus (through the uterine tube)

Beating of cilia towards the uterus (cilia of uterine tube epithelium) + peristaltic contractions of the muscularis

73

are there any glands in the oviduct?

NO

74

what covers the uterine tube?

a serosa of peritoneal covering

75

What is the uterus?

a hollow, pear shaped muscular organ that provides an attachment site for the developing embryo

76

What are the regions of the uterus?

1. Body = expanded upper region (bulk of organ)
2. Fundus = round part where oviducts join
3. Cervix = lower part that protrudes into the upper vagina

77

What are the layers of the Body/fundus of the uterus?

1. Endometrium = mucosa of uterus
2. Myometrium = 3 layers of SMC
3. Perimetrium

78

Where are the large vessels of the uterus found?

in the middle layer of the SMC of the myometrium (stratum vascularue)

79

What happens to the myometrium of the uterus during pregnancy? during menopause?

it undergoes hypertrophy (increase in cell size) and hyperplasia (increase in cell number).. but it atrophies during the abscense of estrogen (menopause)

80

What type of epithelium is found in the endometrium?

simple columnar with ciliated and secretory cells

81

Describe the glands found in the uterus. Where are they found?

found in the endometrium (mucosa) of the uterus; lined by simple columnar epithelium of ciliated + secretory cells; they are simple tubular or simple branched tubular glands that may extend to almost the myometrium

82

what surrounds the glands in the endometrium of the uterus?

stroma (cellular collagenous CT)

83

What are the two layers of the endometrium?

1. Upper layer = functional layer (stratum functionale, lamina functionale, stratum functionalis)
2. Basal layer (stratum basale, lamina basale, stratum basalis)

84

Which layer of the endometrium changes due to the uterine cycle? how does it change?

the functional layer (upper) undergoes changes in appearance and function of the uterine glands, endometrial stroma, and blood vessels during the uterine cycle;

IT IS THE LAYER THAT IS SHED DURING MENSTRUATION!

85

What is the function of the basal layer? is it lost during menstruation?

It doesn't change with the uterine cycle and is not lost during menstruation because its function is to regenerate the functional layer

86

where is the basal layer of the endometrium located? (adj to what?)

located adjacent to the myometrium

87

How is the uterus supplied with blood?

the uterine artery branches into arcuate arteries that supply the endometrium and the arcuate arteries course circumferential within the myometrium to give off 1. straight arteries and 2. spiral (helical) arteries

88

what do the straight arteries of the uterus supply? spiral arteries?

straight supply the basal layer of the endometrium
spiral supply the functional layer of the endometrium

89

which arteries are affected by the uterine cycle? how?

spiral arteries (supply the functional layer) are affected NOT the straight arteries; the spiral arteries degenerate/regenerate with each uterine cycle

90

what does the proliferative phase of the uterine cycle correspond to in the follicular cycle?

growth/maturation of follicules due to increase in estrogen secretion

91

What happens during the Proliferative Phase of the Uterine Cycle?

the functional layer of the endometrium is being rebuilt by mitotic divisions of cells in the basal layer;

92

what happens to the stroma during the proliferative phase of the uterine cycle?

increase in number of stromal cells and ground substance

93

what do the urterine glands appear like histologically during the proliferative phase of the uterine cycle?

straight with a narrow opening

94

What does the Secretory Phase of the Uterine Cycle correspond to in the follicular cycle?

corpus luteum activity and its secretion of progesterone

95

what do the uterine glands appear like histologically during the Secretory Phase of the Uterine Cycle

enlarge and take on corkscrew shape;
become filled with glycogen and glycoproteins produced by the secretory cells

96

What do the spiral arteries appear like in the Secretory Phase of the Uterine Cycle

they are more coiled and extend to the uterine surface

97

Up to where do the spiral arteries extend to in the proliferative phase of the uterine cycle?

through the upper 2/3 endometrium

98

what happens to the endometrial stroma during the Secretory Phase of the Uterine Cycle? what happens to the stromal cells if implantation occurs?

the stromal cells enlarge due to accumulation of glycogen; if implantation occure then they become the decidua basalis (due to influence of estrogen/progesterone)

99

what does the menstrual phase of the uterine cycle coincide with in the follicular cycle?

corpus luteum degeneration and decrease in estrogen/progesterone

100

what happens to the secretory epithelial cells of the endometrium during the menstrual phase of the uterine cycle

they stop secreting glycogen

101

what happens to the stoma during menstrual phase of the uterine cycle

there is a loss of fluid in the stroma, so the stromal cells become more densely packed

102

what happens as a result of periodic contractions of the wall of the spiral arteries during the menstrual phase of the uterine cycle

they cause the functional layer to become ischemic; eventually the spiral arteries close off, shutting off blood flow to the functional layer

103

where does blood continue to flow during the menstrual phase of the uterine cycle

ONLY IN THE BASAL LAYER (functional layer cuts off blood supply)

104

What causes "menstruation"

continued interruptions in blood flow resulting in the sloughing of stromal and epithelial cells, blood, and uterine fluid

105

what is endometriosis?

the presence of endometrial tissue in the pelvis or peritoneal cavity;

**extrauterine endometrial tissues can undergo cyclic changes similar to the endometrium associated with the uterus and if hemorrhaging occurs, it may result in adhesions and pain

106

what is the endocervix canal?

canal that runs between the uterine and vaginal cavities

107

describe the epithelium of the endocervix

simple columnar and mainly mucus secreting cells with some ciliated cells

108

what are the cervical glands? what is their function?

deep branched invaginations of surface epithelium that create a large surface area for secretion

109

does the endocertvix undergo any histological changes during the uterine cycle?

NO

110

what are the cervical glands secretions regulated by?

estrogen

111

how do the cervical gland secretions change with the uterine cycle?

there are no histological changes, but the mucus secreted changes in viscosity such that: during ovulation the mucus is relatively thinner (less viscous) and more alkaline pH in order to provide for favorable conditions for sperm to migrate;
After ovulation the mucus is MORE viscous (thicker) and acidic pH (harmful environment for sperm to thrive)

112

what are nabothian cysts?

when ducts of cervical gland become occluded with secretions

113

Describe the epithelium of the exocervix

stratified squamous non-keratinized (SSNK) epithelium

114

How does the epithelium of the endocervix change in the exocervix?

simple columnar epithelium of the endocervix that changes abruptly to the stratified squamous non-keratinized (SSNK) epithelium of the exocervix

115

What is a pap smear?

a diagnostic tool for detecting cervical cancer performed by aspirating cervical fluid from the vagina or by taking scrapings directly from the cervix (tissue examined on a slide for variations)

116

what epithelium is associated with carcinoma in situ?

SSNK of cervix (cervical carcinoma)

117

Describe the muscosa of the vagina

1. epi = SSNK
2. superficial cells store glycogen
3. NO GLANDS OR MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE

118

Describe the muscularis layer of the vagina

bundles of circular SMC + prominent outer longitudinal SMC

119

Describe the adventitia of the vagina

collagenous tissue containing elastic fibers, large blood vessels + nerves

120

what do the mammary glands develop from? what type of gland are they?

develop from epidermis;
classified as compound tubuloalveolar, modified apocrine sweat glands

121

How do the mammary gland lobes radiate?

from the nipple and empty onto the surface of the nipple through lactiferous sinus and duct

122

what type of tissue makes up the interlobular CT (between the lobules)

dense irregular CT

123

what type of tissue makes up the intralobular CT (within the lobules)

loose CT

124

Describe the epithelium found in a non-pregnant mammary gland

simply cuboidal epithelium + myoepithelium between the epithelium and basal lamina

125

what happens due to increase in estrogen during the uterine cycle with respect to the INACTIVE mammary gland?

some proliferation of the ducts and transient edema

126

What changes occur in the epithelium of the mammary gland of a pregnant patient to prepare for lactation?

epithelium of intralobular ducts proliferates and differentiates into milk secreting cells;

they form secretory alveoli within the lobules (still lined by simple cuboidal epi)

127

what happens due to increase in estrogen during the uterine cycle with respect to the PREGNANT mammary gland? increase in progesterone?

estrogen stimulates duct proliferation
progesterone stimulations secretory alveoli growth

128

What happens to adipose tissue and CT in the pregnant mammary gland?

the amount decreases due to growth of secretory alveoli

129

What causes breast enlargement in a pregnant patient?

proliferation of ductal and alveolar cells, hypertrophy of secretory cells, accumulation of secretions in alveoli

130

What is the difference (histologically) between a lactating and a proliferating (pregnant) mammary gland?

the lumen of secretory alveoli dilate due to accumulation of milk in the lactating gland

131

describe the epithelium of alveoli and intralobular ducts in the lactating mammary gland

simple cuboidal + myoepithelial cells

132

what do the secretory cells of the alveoli of the mammary gland contain?

lipid droplets + milk protein-containing secretory vesicles

133

How are milk proteins released from the mammary gland?

via merocrine secretion

134

How are lipid component of milk released from the mammary gland?

via apocrine secretion: individual lipid droplets coalesce and pass to apical region of the cell where they are released with some plasma membrane and cytoplasm

135

What does the first milk/colostrum contain?

more proteins, fewer lipids than actual milk
also release secretory IgA and IgG

(it is the milk released by the alveoli in the first few days after birth);

136

What is the effect of secretory IgA and IgG released from the mammary glands?

it provides passive immunity to the newborn

137

what produces secretory IgA and IgG?

produced by plasma cells

138

What inhibits the release of prolactin during pregnancy?

Estrogen/progesterone

139

when is the release of prolactin stimulated? what does prolactin cause?

after birth; stimulates production of lipid-rich milk

140

What does a baby sucking on the mother's breast cause?

neural hormonal reflex for oxytocin release from the neurohypophysis which stimulates myoepithelial cell contraction of the alveoli and lactiferous ducts leading to the ejection of milk

141

what happens to the mammary gland with menopause?

it atrophies/involutes

142

what is the difference between ductal carcinoma and lobular carcinoma?

they are both forms of breast cancer; ductal carcinoma involves the ductal cells, lobular carcinoma involves the terminal ductules

143

What happens to adipose tissue and CT in the pregnant mammary gland?

the amount decreases due to growth of secretory alveoli

144

What causes breast enlargement in a pregnant patient?

proliferation of ductal and alveolar cells, hypertrophy of secretory cells, accumulation of secretions in alveoli

145

What is the difference (histologically) between a lactating and a proliferating (pregnant) mammary gland?

the lumen of secretory alveoli dilate due to accumulation of milk in the lactating gland

146

describe the epithelium of alveoli and intralobular ducts in the lactating mammary gland

simple cuboidal + myoepithelial cells

147

what do the secretory cells of the alveoli of the mammary gland contain?

lipid droplets + milk protein-containing secretory vesicles

148

How are milk proteins released from the mammary gland?

via merocrine secretion

149

How are lipid component of milk released from the mammary gland?

via apocrine secretion: individual lipid droplets coalesce and pass to apical region of the cell where they are released with some plasma membrane and cytoplasm

150

What does the first milk/colostrum contain?

more proteins, fewer lipids than actual milk
also release secretory IgA and IgG

(it is the milk released by the alveoli in the first few days after birth);

151

What is the effect of secretory IgA and IgG released from the mammary glands?

it provides passive immunity to the newborn

152

what produces secretory IgA and IgG?

produced by plasma cells

153

What inhibits the release of prolactin during pregnancy?

Estrogen/progesterone

154

when is the release of prolactin stimulated? what does prolactin cause?

after birth; stimulates production of lipid-rich milk

155

What does a baby sucking on the mother's breast cause?

neural hormonal reflex for oxytocin release from the neurohypophysis which stimulates myoepithelial cell contraction of the alveoli and lactiferous ducts leading to the ejection of milk

156

what happens to the mammary gland with menopause?

it atrophies/involutes

157

what is the difference between ductal carcinoma and lobular carcinoma?

they are both forms of breast cancer; ductal carcinoma involves the ductal cells, lobular carcinoma involves the terminal ductules