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Flashcards in Feminism Deck (34)
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What do liberal feminists believe?

That women can achieve gender equality through gradual reforms such as laws


Liberal feminists call for cultural change. Why is this?

To reduce the prejudices and stereotypes of women


What does Ann Oakley draw a distinction between?

Sex and gender


What does Ann Oakley describe sex as?

The biological differences between males and females


What does Ann Oakley describe gender as?

The culturally constructed differences between the masculine and feminine roles and identity roles assigned to males and females


Liberal feminism can be seen as the critique of what view and why?

Functionalism because they challenge the division between instrumental and expressive roles


What are some of the criticisms of liberal feminists?

They are too optimistic as it's not just laws that need changing but capitalism and patriarchy. Sylvia Walby argues that they offer no explanation for the structure of gender equality


What do radical feminists believe?

They believe that patriarchy is universal and male domination of women exists in all societies which benefits men


What does Shulamith Firestone believe about the origins of patriarchy?

She believes that the origins of patriarchy lie in women's ability to have children


What do radical feminists believe to be the primary form of social inequality and conflict?



What does Susan Brownmiller say about rape?

Fear of rape is a powerful deterrent against women going out alone at night


According to radical feminists, what do men create to control women?



According to Adrienne Rich, what do men force women into?

A narrow 'compulsory heterosexuality'


What 3 changes do radical feminists suggest occur?

Separatism, consciousness-raising and political lesbianism


Give some criticisms of radical feminism

Marxists say that class is the primary form of inequality and Anna Pollert argues that radical feminism has little value of explaining women's' position as its a circular argument. Separatism is unlikely to ever be achieved and Jenny Somerville believes single sex households are unlikely to take over because of heterosexual attraction


What do Marxist feminists believe?

Women's position in society is rooted in capitalism


Marxism feminists believe women's subordination performs 4 important functions. What are these functions?

Women are a source of cheap/exploitable labour, women are a reserve army of labour, women reproduce the labour force and women absorb anger


According to Barrett, why do women marry and live in nuclear families?

Barrett says it is the ideology of 'familism' which shows the apparent natural division as man as the breadwinner and the woman carrying out the expressive role


What do Marxist feminists believe to be essential for the liberation of women?

The overthrow of capitalism


What does Julie Mitchell believe about femininity?

It is so deeply ingrained that it is difficult to dislodge


Give 2 criticisms of Marxist feminism?

It doesn't explain oppression in non-capitalist societies, it doesn't explain why women are domestic labourers


What do difference feminists argue about feminist theory?

It has claimed a 'false universality' as it is only about white, western, heterosexual middle-class women


What sort of feminist is Barrett?

Marxist feminist


What do dual systems feminists combine?

The key features of Marxist and radical feminism in a single theory


What are the two systems that are referred to in the dual system?

An economic system (capitalism) and a sex-gender system (patriarchy)


How do dual systems theorists such as Heidi Hartmann see capitalism and patriarchy?

They see them as two intertwined systems that form a single entity - patriarchal capitalism


Does does Sylvia Walby, a dual systems feminist, argue? Give an example

She argues that the interests of capitalism and patriarchy are not always the same, for example, while capitalism demands cheap female labour for its workforce, patriarchy resists this, wanting to keep women subordinate to men


What do difference feminists argue?

They argue that middle class and working class women, black and white women, lesbian and heterosexual women have different experiences of patriarchy and capitalism etc.


What do difference feminists argue feminism has claimed?

A 'false universality' for itself - it claimed to be all about women, but in reality it was only about the experiences of white, western heterosexual women


What does the idea of essentialism refer to?

That all women share the same fundamental essence - all women are essentially the same and all share the same experiences of oppression


Who sees Marxist, liberal and radical feminists as essentialist?

Difference feminists


What is poststructuralism concerned with?

Discourses and power/knowledge


What are discourses?

Ways of seeing, thinking or speaking about something


What is the poststructuralism view?

They believe that there is no fixed essence of what it is to be a woman because our identities are constituted through different discourses