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Anatomy: Lower Limb > Femur > Flashcards

Flashcards in Femur Deck (11):

What type of bone is the femur?

Long bone (in fact, it's the longest bone in the body)


What is the main function of the femur?

Transmits force from tibia to hip joint


Name three muscles that attach to the greater trochanter

Gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, gluteus piriformus


Name two muscles that attach to the lesser trochanter

Psoas major and iliacus


Which ligament attaches to the intertrochanteric line?

Iliofemoral ligament (strong ligament of hip)


What's the difference between the intertrochanteric line and intertrochanteric crest?

Intertrochanteric line is anterior, whereas the intertrochanteric crest is posterior (both span between greater and lesser trochanter)


Where is the quadrate tubercle found and what attaches to it?

. Found on superior half of intertrochanteric crest
. Vastus medialis (one of the quadratus femoris muscles) originates from here and from the medial lip of the linea aspera


What is an intracapsular/subcapsular hip fracture? Who are they most commonly experienced by and how? What damage can it cause?

. Fracture within capsule of hip joint, distal fragment shunts upwards and laterally (leg shortened and laterally rotated)
. Most common in elderly people falling
. Can damage medial femoral circumflex artery, which can lead to avascular necrosis of the femoral head


What is an extracapsular fracture? Who are they most commonly experienced by and how?

. Fracture outside capsule of hip joint
. More common in young and middle aged people
. Blood supply to femur is intact so no avascular necrosis occurs
. Leg is shortened and laterally rotated


Which muscle attaches to the gluteal tuberosity?

Gluteus maximus


Describe the 'branches' of the linea aspera.

(Posterior view)
. Pectineal line is superior and medial, leading on from the anterior intertrochanteric line, below femoral head)
. Gluteal tuberosity is superior and lateral, below greater trochanter
. Medial supracondylar line is inferior and medial
. Lateral supracondylar line is inferior and lateral