This type of drug (not a specific drug) that reduces the perception of pain.
This type of drug (not a specific drug) that reduces or relieves anxiety.
This type of drug (not a specific drug) that makes the patient sleepy, but the patient can still be easily aroused.
This type of drug (not a specific drug) that removes all sensations.
This type of drug (not a specific drug) that increases CNS activity.
This type of drug (not a specific drug) that reduces seizure activity.
The term means pain receptors.
This is the term that describes the conversion of physical trauma to a pain nerve signal.
This is the term that describes the stage of pain pathway where the pain impulses travel up the sensory nerve.
This is the pain pathway process by which the pain signal is modified as it passes through the spinal cord.
This is the term that describes how after trauma more nociceptors begin to fire over time to increase the perception of pain.
This term describes how inflammation from trauma increases the firing of other sensory receptors besides nociceptors that can be perceived as increased pain.
This is the term that describes how after trauma the dampening of pain signals within the spinal cord lessens over time resulting in an increased perception of pain.
This is the compound derived from poppy seeds.
This is the term that describes opium-like drug.
This is the state of sleepiness from which the patient is NOT easily aroused.
This is a term that describes the type of drug that combines a tranquilizer plus a sedative.
This is the opioid receptor that accounts for most of the analgesia when stimulated.
This is the other opioid receptor that accounts for some analgesia but not as much as the mu receptor.
This term describes an opioid drug that produces the maximal effect on an opioid receptor.
full opioid agonist
This term describes an opioid drug that has a weaker effect on an opioid receptor than other stronger drugs, but still does have some effect on the opioid receptor.
partial agonist/partial antagonist
This term describes an opioid drug that stimulates both mu and kappa receptors.
mixed opioid agonist
This term describes an opioid drug that stimulates mu opioid receptors to the maximum amount.
full mu agonist
This term describes an opioid drug that has a weaker stimulatory effect on the mu receptor compared to other stronger mu stimulating drugs.
partial mu agonist
A drug that stimulates weaker analgesia via kappa receptor stimulation, but at the same time blocks the mu receptor would be called this.
full kappa agonist (partial or full mu antagonist)
Constipation from use of analgesics.
What is the prototype opioid drug against which most other opioid drugs are compared?
Type of pain that originates from the organs of the body.
Type of pain that originates from discrete locations on the surface of the body.
Receptor(s) on which morphine is an agonist.
Term used to describe hydromorphone or oxymorphone activity on the mu receptor.
full mu agonists
This change in body temperature occurs with hydromorphone or oxymorphone.
Strong opioid administered by a patch.
This term means that when an opioid is given and achieves a certain level of analgesia, giving more of the opioid will NOT increase the depth of analgesia.
Mixed agonist/antagonist opioid; ceiling effect; short duration; cough suppressant.
Mixed agonist, strong kappa effect; ceiling effect; longer duration than butorphanol; can be sprayed in mouth of fractious cats.
Mu agonist, alpha 2 agonist analgesic; should not be used with antidepressant drugs.
Pure opioid antagonist drug.
This is another term for a tranquilizer type drug.
This type of drug makes an animal sleepy, but they can be easily aroused.
These is a condition of sleepiness from which the animal is not easily awakened.
This term is applied to drugs that are “narcotic” or produce a sleep associated with narcosis.
Receptor phenothiazines work on to produce most of their tranquilization and antiemetic effect.
Receptor phenothiazines work on to add to tranquilization but would interfere with the results of allergy skin testing.
Receptor phenothiazines interact with that makes phenothiazines contraindicated for use in animals that are hypotensive.
ALPHA 1 RECEPTOR
This appears in the eye as a side effect of phenothiazine tranquilization.
NICTITATING MEMBRANE (3RD EYELID)
This side effect of acepromazine is of concern in breeding stallions.
TRANSIENT PENILE PROLAPSE
Valium (brand name – what is the generic name for?)
Benzodiazepine that is paired with tiletamine in Telazol®.
Benzodiazepine that is a secondary anticonvulsant drug.
Reverses the effects of diazepam or midazolam.
Receptor on which drugs like detomidine and medetomidine work.
Rompun (brand name – what is generic name for?)
Neurotransmitter decreased by action on alpha 2 receptor.
This means that once analgesia has been achieved with an alpha 2 agonist drug, further administration of alpha 2 agonist drug will NOT produce any greater level of analgesia.
Xylazine type drugs cause an initial increase in blood pressure by stimulating what receptor?
As a result of the initial increase in blood pressure above, what effect does this have on heart rate?
DECREASED HEART RATE
If the alpha 1 stimulation effect from a drug starts to decrease, what happens to the diameter of the arterioles?
INCREASED DIAMETER OF ARTERIOLES => VASODILATION
Dilation of arterioles does what to arterial blood pressure?
DECREASES ARTERIAL BLOOD PRESSURE
Which species of livestock is very sensitive to the effects of alpha 2 agonists.
What are the two reversal agents for the effects for drugs like xylazine or detomidine?
YOHIMBINE AND ATIPAMEZOLE
Term that describes reversible loss of all sensations associated with unconsciousness?
Term that describes reversible loss of all sensation in a small area without loss of consciousness?
Short acting barbiturate.
Long acting barbiturate used orally to control epileptic seizures.
Drug that has largely replaced barbiturates to induce anesthesia.
Receptor propofol stimulates to produce nervous system depression.
Ion that flows into neuron when GABA receptor is stimulated that results in nervous system depression.
CHLORIDE (CL-) ION
Receptor propofol inhibits to produce anesthesia.
N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) RECEPTOR
Means “not breathing”.
Drug that induces anesthesia but may cause Heinz body anemia in cats.
What are the two dissociative anesthetic drugs used in veterinary medicine?
Dissociative anesthetic found in Telazol.
What is the state induced by dissociative anesthetics?
Receptor antagonized by ketamine or tiletamine to produce analgesia?
Part of the autonomic nervous system active under the effects of dissociative anesthetics.
SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
What drugs are given with dissociative anesthetics to produce more muscle relaxation?
BENZODIAZEPINES OR ALPHA 2 AGONISTS
Short acting anesthetic agent that enhances GABA inhibitory effect on CNS, but is not propofol.
Term used to describe the increased muscle tone observed with ketamine, tiletamine, and etomidate.
Neurosteroid anesthetic agent.
Receptor site for afaxalone.
Concentration used as a measure of potency for the effect of the anesthetic gas.
MINIMUM ALVEOLAR CONCENTRATION (MAC)
Anesthetic gas that has a potent pungent, musty odor making it hard to mask patient down with it; causes vasodilation which likely has minimal effect in a healthy patient but could be a problem in a hypotensive patient.
Anesthetic gas that has faster induction and recovery than isoflurane; good for use in C-sections for that reason.
Anesthetic gas that is the most commonly used anesthetic gas in veterinary medicine.
Anesthetic gas that requires a special heated and pressurized vaporizer to deliver the anesthetic liquid into a gas form.
Anesthetic gas that provides the most precise control over anesthetic depth of the three gasses described.
Weak anesthetic gas added to other stronger anesthetic gasses to reduce the need for the stronger gas.
Anesthetic gas contraindicated for use in animals that may have a damaged segment of bowel that could rupture if inflated with gas.
Class of CNS stimulants that includes caffeine.
Toxic component of chocolate that is also a CNS stimulant.
CNS stimulant typically found in migraine headache medications, pep pills, and diet pills.
Type of chocolate that contains the most concentration of theobromine.
Two types of bronchodilators that are also CNS stimulants.
AMINOPHYLLINE AND THEOPHYLLINE
CNS stimulant drug used to stimulate respiratory rate and depth of breathing.
Type of CNS stimulants that work by allowing more norepinephrine to be released.
ALPHA 2 ANTAGONISTS
Two alpha-antagonist CNS stimulants.
YOHIMBINE AND ATIPAMEZOLE
Type of CNS stimulant that works by blocking the mu receptors.
An opioid antagonist.
Defined as periods of excessive brain electrical activity
Type of seizure in which the seizure is manifests itself in one limb or one area of the body.
Type of seizure that results in movement involving the whole body.
Generalized term for spastic muscle movements as the result of a seizure.
Type of convulsion in which the limbs become rigid from sustained muscle contraction.
Type of convulsion in which the limbs rapidly alternate between contractions and relaxation (jerking movements).
Mixture of convulsive signs in which there is rigidity of the limbs followed by rapid alteration of tonus and clonus (jerking movements).
Disease that is characterized by recurring seizures originating from the brain.
Type of epilepsy for which there is no identifiable cause.
The state of being in a seizure.
Clinical signs that occur just prior to a seizure.
PRODROME OR PRODROMAL PHASE
Another term for the seizure itself.
Period of time immediately after the seizure characterized by behavior changes, confusion, etc.
Drug of choice for long term control of seizure activity.
Neurotransmitter affected by phenobarbital.
GAMMA AMINO BUTYRIC ACID (GABA)
Ion that flows into neuron to cause hyperpolarization with GABA receptor stimulation.
Organ that metabolizes phenobarbital.
Enzyme family that metabolizes phenobarbital.
MIXED-FUNCTION OXIDASES (MFOs)
Specific members of the enzyme family that metabolizes phenobarbital.
Means that the rate of metabolism of a drug has been sped up.
This term describes the checking of a drug’s concentration in the blood in order to adjust the dosage level.
Two liver-related enzymes that will increase on the blood chemistry profile test after administration of phenobarbital.
ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE (ALP) AND ALANINE AMINOTRANSFERASE (ALT)
This is a liver disease caused by a drug.
DRUG INDUCED HEPATOPATHY
This term means that an adverse reaction is not dose related and is unpredictable as to which animal is going to experience it.
Adverse reaction to phenobarbital in which the animal appears anxious, paces, whines excessively.
Drug of choice for treatment of status epilepticus.
Benzodiazepines work by enhancing the effect of this neurotransmitter.
This is the phenomenon in which a PO administered drug is largely removed from the blood coming from the GI tract before the drug can reach systemic circulation.
FIRST PASS EFFECT
Dosage form of diazepam that can be given at home that by-passes the liver’s first pass effect; used by pet owners at home if pet has a seizure.
Added to phenobarbital to control seizures in an animal in which phenobarbital does not control the seizure adequately by itself.
POTASSIUM BROMIDE (KBr)
Type of pain that originates from the nerve itself.
Anticonvulsant drug used to treat neuropathic pain.