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Flashcards in Fill in the blanks for lecture 2/3 Deck (73):
1

Species biodiversity is the _______ of species in a community and some measure of its ________ _________.

1) number
2) relative abundance

2

The simplest measure of species biodiversity is the ______ of species. This is called species _______.

1) number
2) richness

3

The simplest measure of species biodiversity is ________ _________.

Species richness.

4

A diverse community has ______ species than a less diverse community.

more

5

Species diversity is defined on the basis of 2 factors: 1) Species _______ and 2) species _________.

1) Richness
2) Evenness

6

Species richness is the _______ of species.

number

7

Species evenness is the ________ ________ of species.

relative abundance

8

Simpson's index of evenness: if 2 individuals were taken at ________ from a community, the probability that the two species belong to the same species is: (_) ________.

1) Random
2) (D) dominance

9

What are the two factors that define species diversity?

1) Species richness (or the number of species)
2) Species evenness (the relative abundance of species)

10

The differences in the species diversity index (Shannon-Wiener in this case) reflects the difference in _______ ________.

Species evenness.

11

By using life history traits, one may ________ which species or communities are most __ _____.

1) Predict
2) At risk

12

Mean fecundity, parenrtal care/large egg size, maximum maturation size are all components of the __________ strategy.

equilibrium

13

Maximum fecundity, large bodied, maximum maturation size are all components of the _________ strategy.

periodic

14

Minimum fecundity, smaller bodied, and minimum maturation size are all components of the _________ strategy.

opportunistic

15

The equilibrium strategy was seen in fish of ______ ______ _______.

Pacific coast texas

16

At low altitudes, we see the opportunistic strategy employed by the blacknose shiner, a fish of ______-______ _____ _______.

South-Eastern North America

17

The periodic strategy is see employed by large, old fishes of the ______ and ________ ________.

Western and Northern watershed.

18

These ______ ______ approaches in community ecology are just starting to become recognized. (ex: when trying to restock an area with fish; evolutionary basis)

trait based

19

Species richness is the ________ of species.

number

20

The relative abundance of species can be either due to ________ or ________.

1) dominance
2) evenness

21

Biodiversity is:
1) Species _______
2) ________ ________ of species to each other (_______ vs. _______)
3) Diversity of ________ traits
4) Diversity of _______ _______ ______

1) evenness
2) relative abundance; evenness vs. dominance)
3) genetic
4) functional feeding groups

22

Even with just _______ ______, spatial scale matters.

Species richness

23

The different spatial scales are what? (4) (In order of decreasing size)

1) Biogeographic region/realm
2) Biome/ecoregion
3) Regional
4) Local

24

_______ ______: the number of species at a local site.

Alpha diversity

25

_____ ______: the change in species composition between 2 or more sites or the amount of species turnover in a given region.

Beta diversity

26

______ ________: the total diversity in a given region across all sites.

Gamma diversity

27

Latitudinal gradients: ________ species richness closer to the equator.

Increasing

28

The four hypotheses to explain latitudinal diversity gradients are:
1) _____ hypothesis
2) ________ hypotheses: climate
3) ______ ________ and time for diversification
4) _________ hypothesis: rates of diversification

1) Null
2) Ecological
3) Geological history
4) Evolutionary

29

Null models (____ _____ ______): how relationships look in the absence of a process (ex: competition).

Mid domain effect

30

Storch et al (1996) Ecology letters 9:1308-1320: used global distribution of bird data. Mid domain model explained less than ___ _________.

2% globally

31

Better predictions when MDE (Mid-domain effect) was applied with __________ ______ (_________)

Biogeographic regions (continents)

32

Hypothesis 2 - Climate: _______ and _________ should explain patterns of latitudinal patterns in diversity. Should have more species where it is ______ and ____.

1) Temperature/(precipitation)
2) Precipitation/(temperature)
3) Warm/(wet)
4) Wet/(warm)

33

Species-energy hypothesis = _____ ________ hypothesis.

more individual

34

The species-energy hypothesis states that more productive regions (_______) should support _____ individuals.
Areas with more _________ should have more species.

1) Tropics
2) Individuals
3) Individuals

35

Species-Energy hypothesis is supported by data sets from ______ and ________.

1. Trees (Worlwide data)
2. Birds (North American breeding bird survey)

36

The relationships for the species-energy hypothesis were __________ to account for increased diversity with decreasing latitude. For the data sets, species _______ _______ (solid observed line) than predicted (dashed line).

1. Insufficient
2. increased faster

37

Why are there more species in the tropics than one would expect based on precipitation and number of individuals? The answer is that warmer regions with higher precipitation _______ ____ _____ ___ ______ __ _________ ________. So, species persist at ________ population sizes in warmer climates.

1) Support more species per number of individuals sampled
2) Smaller

38

Support: species-individual curve for marine benthic invertebrates. But...variation in minimum viable population size _______ _______ for orders of changes in species richness across latitude.

cannot account

39

Diversification = ________ - _________.

Speciation - (minus) extinction

40

L. G. Stebbins: are the tropics a _______ for generation of new taxa or a ________ for preservation of old taxa.

1) cradle
2) museum

41

(Hyp. 4) Tropical environments are ______ and more ___________ than temperate environments.

1) Older
2) Widespread

42

So... in tropics:
1) _____ time for diversification in tropics
2) ______ harsh climate events (ice ages)

1) More
2) Fewer

43

Global climate over the Cenozoic Era (past 65 million years): _____ then gradual _______.

Warm then gradual cooling

44

Tropical environments reached max extent 50 mya when warm waters (18C) extended into artic:
1) tropics are ______ than temperate areas
2) Tropics have a longer time free from ________
3) Tropics have _______ _____ during the early cenozoic.

1) Older
2) Extinction
3) greater area

45

Species area relationship: logS = logC + zlogA or _ = __^_

S = CA^z

46

Species area relationships: S = CA^z, where,
S = ______ __ ________
A = ______
C = ________
z = ________

S = number of species
A = Area
C = intercept
z = slope

47

Why is area important in determining species diversity?
1) ______ habitats support _____ species
2) _______ opportunities for __________
3) _______ populations and _______ risk of extinction
4) ________ areas support the ____ territories needed by carnivore species.

1) More; more
2) Greater; speciation
3) Larger; lower
4) Larger; huge

48

Larger areas have _____ variety of habitats and _____ species.

Greater;more

49

Larger areas have ______ populations and _____ probability of extinction

larger; lower

50

Large z values (of the species-area curve) = ______ _____ per unit area.

more species

51

small z values (species-area curve) = _____ ______ per unit area. Which means the island is more _________.

1) less species
2) homogeneous

52

Important events that affect species diversity on islands are:
1)
2)

1) Immigration of species to the island
2) Extinction

53

Immigration has two components:
1) ______ or _______ to island
2) Establishment of a _________ population

1) Dispersal or movement
2) breeding population

54

The two types of dispersal or movement are?

Passive and active. (passive is like wind dispersal, active is like flight or walking there)

55

Colonization of islands is:
1.
2.

1) Species specific (based on the trait of the species, ex: can it fly or dispersed by wind?)
2) Distance effect (how far away the island is from the mainland source of the species)

56

Global extinction is the loss of the ______ _____ _____ of a species.

entire gene pool

57

_____ extinction refers to the loss of a species in ______ of its range.

Species;part

58

Extinctions may affect ______ _____ in a community.

many species

59

Extinction is a _______ _______.

Natural process

60

Why do species become extinct?
1.
2.
3.
4.

1) predation effects
2) competition exclusion
3) Loss of genetic diversity
4) Random effects

61

Species-area relationships between mainland and island:
1) Mainland will support _____ species than the island
2) Species number doesn't _____ ___ _____ on mainland so, slopes differ between habitats.

1) More
2) Change as fast

62

Species area relationships:
As islands _______ in size, they become more like the mainland.

Increase

63

Extinctions increase as an island fills with ________.

species

64

The reason that extinctions increase as an island fills with species is that:
1) There are _____ species to go extinct (math)
2) _____ populations have higher risk of extinctions - ______ effect
3) ________ _________ can hasten extinctions (ex: competitive exclusion)

1) More
2) Small
3) Species interactions

65

Several studies have shown that extinction rates are ______ on small islands.

greater

66

Why do smaller islands have higher extinction rates?

1) Smaller total population and greater risk of chance extinction
2) Fewer refuges (safe areas) from competitors and predators

67

I = ?

Immigration rate

68

When I = 0, S = ?

P

69

When S = P, this means what?

all species in the source pool are already on the island and there is NO MORE IMMIGRATION

70

Diversity is determined by the relationship between _______ and ________.

immigration and extinction

71

S-hat = ?

equilibrium diversity

72

The further away an island is, the lower the _________ rate

immigration

73

Smaller islands have _____ extinction rates and ______ species numbers compared to larger islands.

higher;lower