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Flashcards in Fill in the blanks for lecture 4 Deck (43):
1

Stressors include what? (4)

Habitat loss, invasive species, climate change, overharvesting

2

Ecosystem functions are what?

Stocks and fluxes of energy and materials (ex: biomass, productivity, nutrient cycling), stability, invasibility

3

Biodiversity ecosystem function hypothesis (BDEF): a reduction in biological diversity (variety of species, genotypes, ect.) will cause a _______ __ ________ _____ _________.

reduction in ecosystem level processes

4

There are 3 classes of BDEF hypotheses:
1) Species are primarily ______
- loss of species is ___________ for by other species; or, the addition of such species adds nothing new

Redundant; compensated

5

Redundant species: a species could be lost "without much effect on the ______ ___ ______ of the whole community.

structure and function

6

3 classes of BDEF hypotheses:
2) Species are primarily ________
-Species contribute to ecosystem functioning in _______ ____, their loss or addition causes detectable changes.

unique ways

7

What are keystone speices?

A species on which other species in an ecosystem largely depend, such that if it were removed the ecosystem would change drastically.

8

Keystone species are most attributable to which class of BDEF hypothesis?

2) Species are primarily singular

9

3 classes of BDEF hypotheses:
3) Species impacts are context-dependent and therefore ___________.
- The impact of loss or addition of a species depends on ______ _________. (ex: composition)

unpredictable; local conditions

10

Assumptions of BDEF:
1) _______ is changed at a scale relevant to ecosystem functions

diversity

11

Assumptions of BDEF:
2) Reductions in commonly measured ecosystem variables are ___________.

undesirable

12

Ecosystem functioning is divided into 3 classes:
1) Stocks of _______ and ________ (ex: biomass)
2) ______ of energy or material processing (ex: productivity, decomposition, nutrient cycling)
3) ________ of rates or stocks over time (ex: invasion resistance)

1) energy and materials
2) Fluxes
3) Stability

13

What are the different properties of stability?

Resilience, resistance, robustness, persistence.

14

_________ - a measure of the speed at which an ecosystem returns to its original state after a disturbance.

resilience

15

_________ - a measure of the degree of disturbance a system can withstand before switching to another state.

robustness

16

__________ - a measure of the ability of a system to maintain itself through time.

Persistence

17

________ - a measure of the ability of a system to maintain its original state in the face of a disturbance.

resistance

18

Diversity and stability: communities with more species are buffered against:
1) _________
2) ________
3) _________ __________

1) extinctions
2) invasions
3) environmental perturbations

19

__________ effect: explains why more diverse systems are more stable.

portfolio effect

20

The portfolio effect can be described as:
A broadly diverse portfolio _____ less over time (y) than if you invested only 1 or 2 stocks.
As you average more stocks (or more species), they become _____ variable.
Nature, like a stock, has _____ and ____ years.

1) varies
2) less
3) good;bad

21

Ecosystem stability: treatment plots with _____ diversity were 70% more stable in biomass production than __________.

high; monocultures

22

______ ___________: niche differentiation between species or genotypes allows for more efficient exploitation of resources.

niche complementarity

23

Examples of niche complementarity (i.e. lack of niche overlap) are?

Utilization of the same resource differently, foraging in different ways, use different life stages of prey, use different part of the plant (resource).

24

________ ______: species that are redundant in functional roles or capacity respond differently to stressors.

Insurance effects

25

niche complementarity hypothesis: combinations of species that differ in _______ ___ (low niche overlap) have greater impact on ecosystem function.

Resource use

26

When species niche overlap is low, expect ______ differences in ecosystem functioning.

large

27

Evidence for niche complementarity:
1) ______ ________
2) ______ relationship between species richness and ecosystem functioning

1) transgressive overyielding
2) positive

28

_______ _____________ plays a role in the way algal species diversity improves water quality (via nitrate uptake).

niche complementarity

29

Ecosystems with ______ _______ are more efficient at removing nutrients from soil and water than ecosystems with _______ ________.

more species; fewer species

30

_______ habitats: more niche opportunities for species to coexist.

heterogeneous

31

Streams with heterogeneous habitats allow ________ _________ among algal species.

resource partitioning

32

A single species becomes dominant in ___________ habitats.

homogeneous

33

Mechanisms that stabilize ecosystem functions via increased diversity:
_______ _________ can stabilize communities through omnivory or the buffering of strong interactions by weak interactions.
_____ _____ ______ ______ tend to stabilize food webs and characterize more diverse communities.

1) multitrophic interactions
2) low mean interaction strengths

34

Monoculture:
_______ environment for many natural enemies.
Has been suggested that by ________ plant diversity, natural enemy numbers will ________ with a corresponding ________ in herbivore numbers.

1) hostile
2) increasing; increase; decrease

35

What is this bitche's favourite model organism?

Dicyphus hesperus

36

________ design: species densities are constant across treatments.

substitutive

37

Temporal stability of individual species populations: equation?

S(i) = u(i) (mu)/sigma(i)
mu(i) is the mean abundance of species i
sigma(i) is its temporal standard deviation

38

Individuals species show higher stability in _________ than in ________.

polyculture; monoculture

39

Overall, ________ shows an increase in stability relative to __________.

polyculture; monoculture

40

Conclusions (Brommit et al.)
1) Herbivore population stability ________ with increased diversity
2) Specialist parasitoid population stability ______ with increased diversity
3) omnivore population stability _______ with increased diversity
thus,
4)

increases for the 1-3
4) each trophic level stability increases with plant diversity

41

______ ________ increases withe the number of resident species.

biotic resistance

42

________ resistance increases with species richness.

invasion

43

Mechanism: diversity and invasibility (i.e. decrease in invasion success by exogenous plant species)
1) _______ in root biomass
2) ______ in available nitrate in plots

1) increase
2) decrease