Final 1 - Infections of the Oral Cavity Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Final 1 - Infections of the Oral Cavity Deck (42)
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1

Actinomycosis Clinical Features

Bacterial infection (tricky, sounds fungal, but it's not!)

Periapical is the most common orofacial type - can also see on face and neck
Firm swelling with drainage
Visible abscess

2

Actinomycosis Histological Appearance

Sulfur granules! (yellow granules in pus)
Filamentous Gram positive bacteria
Radiating Neutrophil band

3

Actinicomycosis Treatment

Penicillin
I guess Amoxicillin works if we need to write the prescription

4

Other soft tissue bacterial infection Clinical Features

Associated with immunocompromised pts

Abscess with pain, swelling, drainage

5

Other soft tissue bacterial infection Treatment

Identify underlying problem
Incision and drainage
Culture
Antibiotics (Amoxicillin)

6

Superficial Fungal Infections

Candida (C. albicans)- Acute, Chronic, Median Rhomboid Glossitis

7

Deep Fungal Infections

Histoplasmosis
Zygomycosis
Aspergillosis
Cryptococcosis

8

Candida Predisposition Factors

Hyposalivation
Dentures
Diabetes
Iron/B12 deficiency
Immunocompromise

9

Acute Candidiasis Clinical Features

Rapid onset

Pseudomembranous (Thrush):
Yellow-white plaques and papules that scrape off red base

Atrophic: Angular chelitis

10

Angular Chelitis Clinical Features

Acute candidiasis of corners of mouth
Cracked, fissured, weepy

11

Chronic Candidiasis Clinical Features

Atrophic: bright, red sore area under denture

Hyperplastic: chronic muco-cutaneous candidiasis
Looks like leukoplakia, doesn't wipe off

12

Candidiasis Treatment

Nystatin Suspension
Topical Antifungals
Fluconazole if systemic needed

Treat denture with chlorox (plastic) or nystatin (metal)

13

Median Rhomboid Glossitis Clinical Features

Candida infection of midline tongue anterior to circumvallate papillae

14

Candidiasis Histological Appearance

Penetrating hyphae, spores

15

Deep Fungal Infections Clinical Appearance

Persistent single necrotic ulcer (fungi occlude blood vessels)

Zygomycosis - persistant sinus infection in diabetics

Cryptococcosis - meningitis in HIV

16

Viral Infections

Herpes Simplex
Erythema Multiforme
Varicella-Zoster
Post-herpetic Neuralgia
Hairy Leukoplakia
CMV
HHV-8
HPV
Coxsackie virus & Enterovirus

17

Herpes Simplex Pathology

Primary herpetic gingivostomatitis
Lives in ganglia & can reactive (especially during stress, trauma)
Young, immunocompromised

18

Herpes Simplex Clinical Features

Mucosal sores - vesicles, ulcers
Herpes labialis, gingiva

19

Herpes Simplex Treatment

Hydration
Topical pain control (lidocaine)
Antivirals (Acyclovir, Valcyclovir)
Culture to rule out shingles

20

Erythema Multiforme

Hypersensitivity reaction to HSV
Crusting, hemorrhagic blisters and ulcers on lips

Steven-Johnson Syndrome - eye & genital involvement

21

Erythema Multiforme Treatment

Antivirals
Pain control - lidocaine & benedryl

22

Varicella-Zoster Clinical Features

Primary - Chicken Pox
multiple itchy red vesicles all over

Secondary - Shingles
single dermatome, unilateral
multiple painful red vesicles

23

Varicella-Zoster Treatment

Hydration
Antivirals
Pain control

24

Hairy Leukoplakia Pathology

EBV infection in epithelial cells
Immunocompromised

25

Hairy Leukoplakia Clinical Features

White plaque on lateral tongue or buccal mucosa
Painless, vertical fissures
May also have candida infection

26

Hairy Leukoplakia Treatment

No tx unless candida (antifungal)

27

CMV Infection Clinical Features

Single/multiple persistant large painful ulcers
Immunocompromised

28

CMV Treatment

Biopsy
Antiviral

29

HHV-8 Pathology

Associated with Kaposi sarcoma in AIDS

30

HHV-8 Treatment

For Kaposi sarcoma:
Biopsy
Excision
Radiation